A Comparitive Study on Invertase Production, Characterization & Optimization by Penicillium Brevicompactum & Penicillium Chrysogenum on Pineapple Peel Waste.

In: Science

Submitted By waziwahid
Words 11029
Pages 45
INTRODUCTION

Microorganisms are used extensively to provide a vast range of products and services. They have proved to be particularly useful because of the ease of their mass cultivation, speed of growth, use of cheap substrates (which in many cases are wastes) and the diversity of potential products. Their ability to readily undergo genetic manipulation has also opened up almost limitless further possibilities for new products and services from the fermentation industries (Trevor Palmor, 2004). Microorganisms are a large and disease group that exist as its single cell or cell cultures. These include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and infectious agents at the borderline of life. Microbes are present most abundantly in soil, atmosphere and water plays a important role in the biochemical agent for the conversion of complex organic compounds into simple organic compounds (Glazer and Nikaido, 1995). Microorganisms are closely associated with health and welfare of human beings. Some Microorganisms are beneficial and others are detrimental. For example, Microorganisms are involved in the making of yoghurt, cheese and wine, in the production of Penicillin, interferons and alcohol, and the processing of industrial and domestic wastes. Microorganisms can cause disease, spoil food and deteriorate materials like iron, pipes, glass lenses and wood pilings (Glazer and Nikaido, 1995). Most of these Microorganisms irrespective of their origins, were subsequently modified by conventional strain improvement strategies, using mutagenesis or breeding programmes to improve their properties for industrial use (Trevor Palmor, 2004). In most cases regulatory considerations are of major importance when choosing microorganisms for industrial use. Fermentation industries often prefer to use established GRAS(Generally Regarded As Safe) microorganisms, particularly for the…...

Similar Documents

Comparitive Study on Online Forums

...motion study    standard hours direct labor standard DefinitionSave to Favorites Method for establishing employee productivity standards in which (1) a complex task is broken into small, simple steps, (2) the sequence of movements taken by the employee in performing those steps is carefully observed to detect and eliminate redundant or wasteful motion, and (3) precise time taken for each correct movement is measured. From these measurements production and delivery times and prices can be computed and incentive schemes can be devised. Generally appropriate only for repetitive tasks, time and motion studies were pioneered by the US industrial engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) and developed by the husband and wife team of Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924) and Dr. Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972). See also Taylorism. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/time-and-motion-study.html#ixzz2HC6A1nzL Time and motion study From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (the same couple as is best known through the biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by the Dozen). It is a major part of scientific management (Taylorism). After its first introduction, time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times, while motion study......

Words: 4617 - Pages: 19

Organizational Waste-over Production

...OVER PRODUCTION Overproduction is producing more or faster than the required demand or speed. It usually starts by getting ahead of the work required. Overproduction is mainly occurred when; Tact time>Cycle time Tact time=(time available)/(customer demand) When the cycle time which is the time taken by the production line to create a unit of product is very much smaller than the tact time, the time which is expected to be taken by the production line to meet the demand, overproduction is occurred. Reasons for overproduction Measuring productivity by calculating the amount produced Unreliable process Unstable schedules Unbalanced work load Lack of reuse and recycling Woking for inaccurate information on actual demand Installing new machinery but using the same process of manufacture Consequences of overproduction The fall of the price of the product Difficulty of selling all of the goods Loss of business profit High utility cost Disposal charges Unnecessary waste handling cost Excessive raw materials Unnecessary inventory and storage costs The money is unnecessarily stuck in the warehouse How to eliminate overproduction First of all the waste of overproduction within the organization must be identified. Then mainly the cycle time must be matched with the tact time. The most successful way to reduce overproduction is to implement the principles of lean manufacturing, identify the value stream using tools such as value stream......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Production of Electricity from Waste

...NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES WASTE TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY (WTEE) TECHNOLOGY GENERATING WEALTH FROM GARBAGE CONTENTS 1. RESOURCE RECOVERY 2. PROCESSED SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION a. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - PROCESSES b. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - PREPARATION c. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - CLASSIFICATION d. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - CHARACTERSTICS e. REFUSED DERIVED FUEL - HIGHLIGHTS 3. WTEE – SOCIO ECONOMIC PROJECT 4. DEVELOPMENT & FUTURE OF WTEE 5. CONCLUSION 6.BIBLIOGRAPHY What happened on May, 2004 in Mumbai? Due to failure of local grid. The business capital of India jammed for hours. Being largest railway network city, even the locals also stick to tracks. This incident shows the human connection with electricity. Electrical energy is an essential ingredient for all activities, as well as the lifeblood of economies throughout the world. It plays a vital role for economic growth and quality life improvements: with the increase in population of the world. The demand for power has gradually increased. Hence the burden on the countries, especially developing countries like India have increased to meet the demands in the present day. Most of the demands are met by conventional sources such as fossil fuels, hydal, nuclear power etc. The use of these sources have not only resulted in their depletion. But also increased the population. Hence there is a great need for improving technology in the use of......

Words: 1931 - Pages: 8

A Study of Pineapple Peelings as Vinegar

...Pineapple Peelings as Vinegar II. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Abstract…………………………………………………………... 1 Research Plan…………………………………………………….. 2 * Introduction………………………………………………….. 2 * Statement of the Problem…………………………………….. 2 * Significance of the Study…………………………………….. 2 * Scope,Delimitation and Limitations………………………….. 2 * Definition of Terms…………………………………………… 3 Review of Related Literature……………………………………… 4 Methodology……………………………………………………… 5 * Materials………………………………………………………. 5 * Procedures…………………………………………………….. 5 Result of Discussion………………………………………………. 6 * Tabular Presentation………………………………………….. 6 * Analysis………………………………………………………. 6 * Interpretation…………………………………………………. 6 Conclusion………………………………………………………... 7 Recommendation…………………………………………………. 7 References………………………………………………………… 7 Acknowledgement………………………………………………… 8 III. ABSTRACT The pineapple is a tropical plant and fruit. It is an example of a multiple fruit: multiple, spirally-arranged flowers along the axis, each produce a fleshy fruit that becomes pressed against the fruits of adjacent flowers, forming what appears to be a single fleshy fruit. Pimeapples are the only eration fruit in widespread cultivation. It is one of the most commercially important plants which carry out Crassulacean acid metabolism or CAM photosynthesis. The pineapple has a peelings which we considered as waste but in just a simple and easiest way we can make it into......

Words: 2300 - Pages: 10

Optimization in Production Operations

...Optimization in Production Operations Optimal “Lean Operations” in Manufacturing By Carlos W. Moreno © 2005-06 Ultramax Corporation Oct. 5, 2006 Introduction This essay deals with production / manufacturing operations: with their economic impact (or other metrics) while making product with the existing process, usually driven to satisfy: • market demand (delivered: volume, quality) • • economics (incurred: cost savings, resource utilization); and safety (safeguarding equipment, personnel and environment) These drivers represent the main impact of production on company profits, with short-term and long-term effects on the P&L Statement. The bottom line is that most production processes are underutilized; and the use of mature, accessible mathematical technology unlocks that latent capacity, which is of significant value. The best possible performance is “Optimal Operations.” In the process industry it is called “Process Optimization.” In manufacturing it is the extreme of Lean Operations, one of the components of “Lean Manufacturing” success. Other components that qualify for “lean” in the sense of avoiding waste (non-value-added), and not missing opportunities for improvements are: “Lean Design” (the most common emphasis today), “Lean Logistics – and Supply Chain,” “Lean Maintenance,” “Lean Scheduling,” “Lean Safety,” and “Lean Scheduling.” Some share interests with Six Sigma as well (quality and costs). All these solutions are also part of the classical field of......

Words: 3433 - Pages: 14

Pineapple

...Study of Pineapple Peelings Processing into Vinegar by Biotechnology ABSTRACT | This study aimed to reduce post-harvest losses of pineapple local variety egbenana by the transformation of juice into vinegar through biotechnological process.Vinegar was produced through two successive fermentations: alcoholic and acetic fermentations. The alcohol fermentation was carried out at 30°C using yeast. Biomass, pH and Brix were evaluated daily during the fermentation. Acetic fermentation was carried out at 30°C using an acetic bacteria strain isolated from pineapple wine previously exposed to ambient temperature (28°C) for 5 days. Biomass, pH and acid levels were monitored each 2 days. The performance of acetic bacteria isolated was also assessed by studying their glucose and ethanol tolerance. The study allowed the isolation of yeast coded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) and an acetic bacteria coded Acetobacter sp. (ASV03) both occurring in the pineapple juice. The monitoring of successive fermentations indicated that the pineapple juice with sugar concentration of 20 Brix, seeded with 106 cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) for alcoholic fermentation for 4 days and afterwards seeded with 106 cells of Acetobacter sp. resulted in 4.5 acetic degree vinegar at Brix 5.3% and pH 2.8 for 23 to 25 days. The study of glucose tolerance of the strain of Acetobacter sp. showed that the growth of acetic bacteria was important in a juice with high concentration of sugar. However, the......

Words: 4077 - Pages: 17

Solid Waste Management Case Study

...IMPROPER SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY AT BARANGAY 19, SAMPAGUITA STREET BATANGAS CITY Introduction Solid Waste Management refers to the collecting, treating, and disposing of solid material that is discarded because it has served its purpose or is no longer useful. Improper disposal of municipal solid waste can create unsanitary conditions, and these conditions in turn can lead to pollution of the environment and to outbreaks of vector-borne disease—that is, diseases spread by rodents and insects. The tasks of solid-waste management present complex technical challenges. They also pose a wide variety of administrative, economic, and social problems that must be managed and solved. The primary sources of solid waste include waste generated in residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial activities. Certain types of wastes that cause immediate danger to exposed individuals or environments are classified as hazardous; these are discussed in the article hazardous-waste management. All nonhazardous solid waste from a community that requires collection and transport to a processing or disposal site is called refuse or municipal solid waste (MSW). Refuse includes garbage and rubbish. Garbage is mostly decomposable food waste; rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass, paper, cloth, or wood. Garbage is highly putrescible or decomposable, whereas rubbish is not. Trash is rubbish that includes bulky items such as old refrigerators, couches, or large tree stumps....

Words: 2871 - Pages: 12

A Study of Pineapple Peelings as Vinegar

...Department Kidapawan City THE FEASIBILITY OF PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS) PEEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE VINEGAR CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY A Pineapple, is a fruit wherein you have to peel off the peelings to eat it, like any other fruits. We, the researchers, chose this as their project to prove that Pineapple peelings have other uses. We, the researchers, also noticed that the families in our country are very practical nowadays. Instead of throwing the peelings away, many families can earn something from it by using our experiment. They can produce a product and maybe start a business or they can produce it for their own use. We, the researchers, wanted to prove that nothing in this world is useless and peelings count as useful materials too, and can somehow help people to use their creative minds to make things possible out of such wastes. B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Our country is experiencing economic crisis and many Filipinos do not have stable jobs. Our problem in waste management also has a huge impact on why the researchers chose this study to begin with. The wastes in market says it all. The following problems that this study wants to answer are the following: * Does the peeling of pineapple (Ananas comosus) can be made as vinegar? * Can this study help to reduce the waste in the environment? * Is pineapple vinegar more affordable than a commercially sold vinegar? * Is pineapple vinegar has more taste than a......

Words: 583 - Pages: 3

Comparitive Study

...Q1 Explain the importance of compensation management and detail how organization handle its complexities? Ans1 Compensation and reward system plays vital role in a business organization.since, among four Ms, i.e. men, material, machine and money, men has been most important factor, it is impossible to imagine a business process without men. Every factor contributes to the process without men. Every factor contributes to the process of production/business. It expects return from the business process such as rent is the return expected by the landlord, capitalist expects interest and organizer i.e. entrepreneur expects profits. Similarly the labourexpects wages from the process. Labor plays vital role in bringing about the process of production /business in motion. The other factors being human, has expectations, emotions, ambitions and egos. Labor therefore expects to have fair share in the business/production process. Therefore a fair compensation system is a must for every business organization. The fair compensation system will help in the following: 1) An ideal compensation system will have positive impact on the efficiency and results produced by employees. It will encourage the employees to perform better and achieve the standards fixed. 2) It will enhance the process of job evaluation. It will also help in setting up an ideal job evaluation and the set standards would be more realistic and achievable. 3) Such a system should be well defined and......

Words: 3054 - Pages: 13

Title: Hydrogen Production by Onboard Gasoline Processing - Process Simulation and Optimization

...com/locate/enconman Hydrogen production by onboard gasoline processing – Process simulation and optimization Vega Bisaria, R.J. Byron Smith ⇑ Process Systems Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 5 September 2012 Accepted 2 August 2013 Keywords: Onboard fuel processor Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicles Process Simulation a b s t r a c t Fuel cell vehicles have reached the commercialization stage and hybrid vehicles are already on the road. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain critical issues in stand alone commercialization of the technology, researchers are developing onboard fuel processors, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The feasibility study of a 100 kW on board fuel processor based on gasoline fuel is carried out using process simulation. The steady state model has been developed with the help of Aspen HYSYS to analyze the fuel processor and total system performance. The components of the fuel processor are the fuel reforming unit, CO clean-up unit and auxiliary units. Optimization studies were carried out by analyzing the influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, temperature and pressure on the process equipments. From the steady state model optimization using Aspen HYSYS, an......

Words: 4647 - Pages: 19

Pineapple as Bioethanol

...Extraction of Bioethanol from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Peelings Through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Using the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae AN INVESTIGATORY PROJECT SUBMITTED AS AN ENTRY TO THE 16TH INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT OLYMPIAD (16TH INEPO) 16. INEPO ÇEVRE PROJE OLİMPİYADI FATİH KOLEJİ (FATIH COLLEGE) ISTANBUL, TURKEY 1-4 JUNE 2008 Avril Rodiel Bries Quezon City Science High School (Regional Science High School for NCR) REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES- CUMHURIYET FİLİPİNLER School Year 2007-2008 Mr. Noel Pablo Diaz Research Adviser Abstract: On average, 435,000 metric tons of pineapples are produced annually in the Philippines, which is one of the country’s leading commercial fruit products. However, there are a lot of unused excess parts of the pineapple, notably the peelings, which are considered as waste and contribute to the country’s garbage problem. There is a global oil crisis, as the demand for petroleum increases each year while our supplies are rapidly being depleted. Bioethanol, a principle biofuel, is a natural alternative to gasoline. One solution to both dilemmas is to produce bioethanol from pineapple plant peelings. This will be made possible by extracting the glucose content of the peelings and fermenting it through the process of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) using the yeast sample. Peel samples, coming......

Words: 2907 - Pages: 12

Bannana Peel Fertilizer

...on Modern Food Industry (FMFI) Volume 2 Issue 4, November 2013 Optimization of Pomace and Banana Peel Fermentation for Production of Single Cell Oil A. Kulkarni*1, A. Singh2, B.K Kumbhar3, M. Sahgal4 Department of Post Harvest Process & Food Engineering, College of Technology, GB Pant University of Agri & Technology, Pantnagar 263 145 U.S Nagar, Uttarakhand, INDIA 2 corresponding author e-mail: asingh3@gmail.com Abstract Present study was carried out to obtain single cell oil using fermented apple pomace and banana peel. The variables selected for the final experiments were levels of pH (3.0, 4.0 and 5.0), fermentation time (24, 48 and 72 hrs) and inoculum level (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 ml). Designed experiments were conducted randomly to reveal the effect of these variables on pH, sugar utilization and single cell oil yield. Fermentation of apple pomace (50%) with banana peel (50%) resulted in maximum single cell oil production (5.87%) by using R. minuta. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions (pH 3.0, fermentation time 56.4 hrs and inoculum level 1.12 ml) for maximum single cell oil production. The model F- value was found to be highly significant at 1% level of significance in case of pH, utilized sugar and single cell oil yield. Hence, second order model could be fitted to predict all the dependent parameters. Key words Single Cell Oil; Fermentation; Pomace; Agro Waste Utilization Introduction The concept of single cell oil......

Words: 2375 - Pages: 10

Case Study on Solid Waste Management

...Case Study of Solid Waste Management at a College Campus Abhilash Krishna1, Krishna Nandanan2, Pradeep Kumar S.S.3, Srihari K.S.4 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, India. abhilash.krishnadbz@gmail.com1,krishna_92@hotmail.com2,sspk1992@gmail.com3,srihariks12@gmail.com4 ABSTRACT This paper examines the technical, economic and environmental aspects of the waste management techniques practiced at an educational campus in South India. It encompasses the entire spectrum of waste collection, segregation, reuse, recycle, incineration and landfill. An in-depth analysis of this process has been done as it helps to both emulate and improve this complex yet essential practice. The study involves interaction with people directly associated with this process by which a clear understanding of the technical and management aspect of the entire process can be obtained. It has also provided a substantial amount of raw data regarding the amount and types of waste generated, labour, cost and other related aspects. Appropriate suggestions and justifications had been put forth to improve the efficiency of the system. Keywords - bio-degradable waste, compost, non bio-degradable waste, waste management. 1. INTRODUCTION A sample population of 8000 people in a 450-acre college campus had been considered. The college campus is located in a nondescript village in South India. In such a populous community, generation of large amount of......

Words: 2760 - Pages: 12

Comparitive Study on Ulips

...A PROJECT REPORT ON “COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ULIPS IN THE INDIAN INSURANCE MARKET” FOR TATA AIG LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY LTD BY MISS DELNAAZ. PARVEZ. DOCTOR MBA SEMESTER III Project Guide “Prof Vaishampayam” In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of the Two Year Full Time PGDM Programme Of the SMVIM, PUNE. AY 2007-08 PREFACE As an essential and obligatory part of my course, I have undergone two months summer training at Tata AIG Life Insurance Company Ltd, Pune. This training has helped me in getting the practical knowledge into the business environment. I got the knowledge about the Insurance industry. In this report I have said about the current position of the insurance sector in India. This report includes a deep study made on the ULIPs in the insurance market and its impact on the person’s income. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS S.NO. 1. 2. CONTENTS Acknowledgement Certificate from the company Certificate from the college Introduction Company Profile Research Methodology Introduction to Insurance About ULIPs Distinction between ULIPs & Mutual Funds Comment on the Distinction Comparative Analysis of ULIPs( Tata AIG with others) Growth & Returns Fund Performance Overall Data Analysis and Findings Understanding the working of ULIPs of TATA AIG Market Survey on ULIPs of TATA AIG Integrated Financial Planning for Life Insurance Conclusion Recommendations Bibliography Questionnaire PAGE NO. 3 4 5 6 7-9 10 11-17 19-26 27-30 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.. 9...

Words: 10614 - Pages: 43

Bioethanol Production from Food Waste

...Ethanol Production From Food Waste A PROJECT REPORT Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Biotechnology) Under the Guidance of Dr. S.M. Bhatt (Associate Professor) Department of Biosciences By Abhishek Agarwal Registration No. 10809065 Roll No. RB18B2A07 Department of Biotechnology Engineering Lovely Professional University Phagwara –144401 November 2011 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Abhishek Agarwal bearing Registration no. 10809065 has completed minor project titled, “Ethanol Production from Food Waste” under my guidance and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the present work is the result of her original investigation and study. No part of the dissertation has ever been submitted for any other degree at any University. The dissertation is fit for submission and the partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology. Date Dr. S.M. Bhatt Assistant Professor Biometric Id 14722 Lovely School Of Bio Sciences Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab. DECLARATION I,Abhishek Agarwal , student of Btech Biotech+M.B.A., under Department of Biotechnology Engineering of Lovely Professional University, Punjab, hereby declare that all the information furnished in this minor project report is based on my...

Words: 4340 - Pages: 18