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罗炳权
浅谈自由
自由与我们的生活息息相关。言论需要自由,行为需要自由,思想需要自由;学习讲求自由,恋爱必须自由,择业也得自由。自由几乎成了所有现代人的追求。 “自由”一词来源已久,早在中国古代,庄子的《逍遥游》等名篇就为自由奠定了思想理论基础;在《汉书·五行志》中也出现了自由一词;《玉台新咏·古诗》中亦有“吾意久怀忿,汝岂得自由”;到宋代,自由已经成为了一时的流行用语。 而在西方,最初意义上的自由主要指自主、自立、摆脱强制,意味着人身依附关系的解除和人格上的独立。Freedom(自由)在12世纪以前就已经形成,Liberty(自由)则出现在14世纪,源于古拉丁语的Liberta,意为从束缚中解放出来,在古希腊和古罗马时期,“自由”与“解放”本同义。1789年《人权宣言》第4条就写道“自由即有权利做一切无害于他人的任何事情。”第二次世界大战时期,美国总统罗斯福曾提出著名的“四大自由”:表达的自由、信仰的自由、免于匮乏的自由和免于恐惧的自由。 柏拉图和苏格拉底认为,自由是精神上的,内在的自由,解除对个人意见、情欲等的束缚限制的自由。“理想国”理论主张实行“寡头政治”希望人们受哲学家的领导,以节制人的私欲,求灵魂的上升。他们所说的自由是理性的自由、知识的自由。但他们这一观点是不实际的。首先“理想国”本来就不可能存在,人的存在总是善恶半分的。一旦个人意见和情欲等得到自由,人的恶念就会随之而生,哲学思想的领导并不能有效的节制人的私欲,所谓灵魂的上升不过是他们的一相情愿。 奥古斯丁的自由观则认为,人的意志是自由的,他可以选择去做依于欲望而发的行为(即恶),以及依于灵性而发的行为(即善)。人的这种行动机能是善的,是神所赋予的,与动物不同。但这种善是相对的、有限的,并非绝对的、无限的,因为人有原罪。人要为善而去恶,完全摆脱欲望的束缚不能靠自己,要依靠神。奥古斯丁所说的自由只是宗教的自由,而非道德的自由。在我看来,奥虽然看清了人内心的善与恶,但他不能信任人本身可以驾驭自由,或者说他提出他的自由观只是用来提高神的地位,让神帮助人摆脱恶。但这种“为善而去恶”的想法很容易被歪曲,使人作恶理所当然,这种宗教的自由很容易让人误入歧途。这种自由就相当于任性意义的自由,想说什么就说什么,想做什么就做什么,自由放任,因为人是不能靠自己摆脱欲望的,只有神可以。 这些自由观都可以说是消极自由,他们认为自由是个人的自由,与他人无关,个人的自由是不可侵犯的。我认为这同时也是感性的自由,他们都把自由归于个体的,自发的,都是他们个人的主张。但事实上要想自由作用于人,那么自由必须是理性的自由,积极的自由。因为人是社会动物,人的生存不能离开社会,而人的自由也是建立在社会自由之上的。 萨特认为,人是生而要受自由之苦的。人的自由是选择的自由,这种自由实际上是不自由,因为人无法逃避选择的宿命。人是社会的动物,因而人无可逃避地会去选择了解,选择去爱周围的人,这是生而为人的天性。我比较认同这种观点。人的自由在于选择,而不是在与给出选项。这就相当于一场考试。人的自由就相当于考生怎么去做这份考题,怎样选择自己认为正确的答案,而出考题的事就不是考生所能左右的了,就好像给出选择已经不是人的自由范畴了。萨特又说,人的自由就在于每个人生来就是不同的,就像没有两片相同的树叶一样,而且人心比树叶的脉络更加复杂。我就是我,我注定不能用我的思维去理解别人。这就涉及到一个个性与共性的问题了。共性是社会所给予的,这是被自由;个性是人自己所能决定的,是真自由。树叶的自由在于脉络的走向,它喜欢怎样长就怎样长,但它的被自由就在于作为什么树的树叶就应该长成什么样,是枫叶就张成五角、是柳叶就长成长条、是松叶就长成针状。自由是苦的,因为自由并没有绝对的自由,总是有一个牢笼限制着我们,或者是法律,或者是道德,或者是性格,或者是能力,又或许是所谓的神;但自由又是乐的,纵使苍鹰飞不出宇宙,但它也能翱翔与青天知下,在长空中享受自己仅有的那份自由,在自己能力范围内尽情的逍遥,尽情地长啸。 其实中国哲学中的自由观,佛道儒三家也是属于积极的自由,他们都把世界看成是一个大整体,而人是世界的一部分,人的自由建立在世界的规则之上。…...

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