Bio-Technology

In: Science

Submitted By desaijpr
Words 8297
Pages 34
INTRODUCTION

Biotechnology is one of the innovative branches of science. Biotechnology has created new revolutions in this era by contributing industries, medical sciences, food technologies and genetics.

"Biotechnology is basically defined as the use of living organisms, their parts and their biochemical processes for the creation of beneficial products."

Bio-technology has its roots in the distant past and has a large, highly profitable, modern industrial outlets of great value to society for e.g. the fermentation, bio-pharmaceutical and food industries. The main reasons must be associated with the rapid advances in molecular biology, in particular, recombinant DNA technology, which is now giving bio-scientists a remarkable understanding and control over biological processes.

Some Technologies used in Biotechnology:

1. Bioprocessing technology * The use of bacteria, yeast, mammalian cells and/or enzymes to manufacture products * Large scale fermentation and cell cultures, carried out in huge bioreactors, manufacture useful products * Products: Insulin, vaccines, vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids, etc.

2. Monoclonal antibodies (MCAb) * Definition: Producing antibodies for medicine by cloning a single cell * MCAb are used for Home Pregnancy tests * Used to detect cancer (they bind to tumor cells) * Used to detect diseases in plants and animals and environmental pollutants 3. CELL CULTURE TECHNOLOGIES * Growing cells in containers or large bioreactors * Plant cell cultures are used to grow genetically engineered plants that contain useful traits, such as resistance to insect pests. 4. Tissue engineering technology * A combination of cell biology and materials science * Creates semi synthetic tissues in the laboratory * Uses natural collagen and…...

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