Clergy

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Ikechukwu
Words 2189
Pages 9
OVERVIEW

In 1998, more than 13 million children (19 percent of all children) under age eighteen lived in families with incomes below the official poverty threshold. Although children age eighteen and under represent 26 percent of the United States population, they comprise nearly 40 percent of the poverty population. Despite a steady decrease from 1993 (23%) to 1999 (17%) in the rate of children in poverty, the United States still ranks highest in childhood poverty among all industrialized nations.

In the United States, income poverty is defined by the poverty threshold, developed in 1959 and based on expected food expenditures (thrifty food basket) for families of varying sizes. Each year the threshold is adjusted for the Consumer Price Index cost of living. In 1999, the poverty threshold for a single mother raising two children was $13,423. Researchers have criticized the poverty threshold on numerous counts. First, government transfers such as food stamps and housing subsidies as well as tax benefits (e.g., the Earned Income Tax Credit) and tax payments are not included when assessing the poverty threshold. Second, regional and urban differences in the cost of living are not considered when computing the poverty threshold. Despite the criticisms levied against the way poverty is assessed in the United States, the current review highlights research that has used this definition of poverty, while acknowledging its weaknesses.

This article reviews the literature linking family poverty to children's cognitive and educational outcomes such as achievement tests, grade completion, and high school graduation. Timing of poverty has been shown to make a difference vis-à-vis child outcomes; thus, the discussion focuses on three stages of childhood: early childhood (age two to four), middle childhood (age five to twelve), and adolescence (age thirteen to eighteen).…...

Similar Documents

Letter from a Birmingham Jail

...Letter from a Birmingham Jail Martin Luther King Jr. wrote Letter from a Birmingham Jail in response to his white clergy men, who criticized his actions which landed him in jail. This letter was primarily directed at the religious leaders who had the power to do something about segregation, but chose not to. Martin Luther King Jr. used Biblical examples to show that his nonviolent actions were essential for African Americans to move forward in this country. He communicates this message very effectively to these men by using examples from the Apostle Paul and King Solomon who were preached about in the churches of the religious leaders. He also justifies his nonviolent action by comparing it to “just” and “unjust” using one example of Hitler. “We should not forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was ‘legal’” King claims there is no better timing for a resolution to an issue that has been at conflict for 340 years and that there was no wrong-doing during this "sit-in." Martin Luther King Jr. is asking for the help of the clergymen so they can move forward with Civil Rights. These, clergy, men possess the power to change people's mind,s and yet do not even try. King gives such overwhelming emotion when he compares the situation in Birmingham with Biblical situations. He is very professional and polite at the beginning which helps the audience to really listen to what he has to say. When he really gets his point through is when he gradually gets......

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

The Missing Piece of the American Revolution

...Patriotic, clergy referenced the Bible to justify the rebellious American spirit against British rule and unite their congregations. Furthermore, political revolutionaries manipulated this public spirituality to gain a stronger and necessary support in the country’s fight for independence. Clergymen, who allied with the revolutionary movement, tactfully utilized religion to justify the rebellion by rejecting Britain as the legitimate political leader of the colonies. Though the Bible explicitly calls for obedience to civil authority, Reverend Jonathan Mayhew overcame this contradiction to the revolution. He contested the King of England’s right to power. To achieve this, he recalled the king’s crimes against God and revived the colonists’ anger. The minister reminded the colonists of the magistrate’s support for papists over Puritans and his allowance of sports during the Sabbath (Willard 40). In the king’s impiety, Mayhew saw a deeper danger. The reverend said when a king “turns tyrant and makes his subjects his prey to devour and destroy […], we are bound to throw off our allegiance to him, and to resist” (Willard 41). Mayhew’s view of King Charles as repressive and heretical trumped the Biblical rule of obedience to authority. The fight for liberty became God’s fight. According to the revolutionary clergymen, divine power supported their uprisings against Britain. King Charles represented repression of a people that fought for freedom. (Morone 110). Instead, the clergy......

Words: 1377 - Pages: 6

Tax Vertaran

...TM This application is for the following exemption programs for your New York City primary residence: Basic and Enhanced STAR (School Tax Relief), Senior Citizen, Disabled, Veteran and Clergy. Please read the instructions at the end of this application before you fill it out. If you have questions, contact 311. Finance EXEMPTION APPLICATION FOR OWNERS NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE G PROGRAM OPERATIONS DIVISION 2013/2014 Please check the box of each exemption you are requesting: STAR SECTION 1 - PROPERTY INFORMATION Sections 1, 2, 4 & 8 Applications must be postmarked by March 15, 2013 to be eligible for the 2013/14 tax year. K Enhanced STAR Sections 1, 2, 3, 4 & 8 K Senior Sections 1, 2, 3, 4 & 8 K Disabled Sections 1, 2, 4, 5 & 8 K Veteran Sections 1, 2, 6 & 8 K Sections 1, 2, 7 & 8 Clergy K 1. Address: 2. Type of Residence (check one): Date you purchased the property: ______________________________ ________________ Block: BOROUGH ZIP CODE DD MM YYYY _______________ HOUSE NUMBER ______________________________________________ STREET NAME YOUR PROPERTYʼS BLOCK AND LOT CAN BE FOUND AT nyc.gov/finance Lot: _______________ APARTMENT NUMBER SECTION 2 - OWNER INFORMATION If there are more than two owners, please complete the Additional Ownersʼ Sheet on page 4. Other (please specify): ___________________ and the percent of space used for primary residence:_______% 3...

Words: 3337 - Pages: 14

Modesty in the Pulpit

...Modesty in the Pulpit ACTIVITY DISCUSSION: Please read the following story for discussion: Today's question has to do with one we all deal with and that is how to dress as clergy; What is considered appropriate clergy/ministers apparel? Susan: I typically wear black slacks (many different cuts and fabrics) or mom jeans with a turtleneck (usually white) or a shell and a jacket (usually with a mandarin collar). Lisa: I was recently at a clergy meeting where one of the other clergywomen caused quite a sensation. She's recently divorced, 50 years old and quite attractive (very nice figure). She attended this meeting in a very low cut pair of jeans, a midriff shirt and platform heels. (mind you, this is a gathering of clergy and the rest of us were in our "Sunday" clothes.) What caused all the twittering was her tat -- what is called by my youth group a "tramp stamp" and the fact that her thong "handles" were hanging out. I really don't think we got much business done that day. The elder in charge said nothing, in fact, nothing was said until an older gentlemen looked at her said, "And this is the reason that women shouldn't be clergy." After that, as the saying goes, all hell broke out. I thought that people were going to be hurt.... Mary: While at an informal meeting at church several of the female pastors of this particular church were dressed in fashionable jeans and colorful spring tops. They were either scoop necked or buttoned at the neck and were short...

Words: 373 - Pages: 2

Progression of Church and State Relations

...churches or monasteries became landowners. This automatically brought the clergy into the feudal system. Kings and lords looked upon the popes, bishops and clergymen as their vassals, which resulted in clash between church and state. The question soon became who was more powerful, the church or state! Because of the Church’s position in relation to state figures the feudal system brought the clergy under the power of the feudal kings and lords. The feudal system along with other factors would soon lead to another large historical factor in Church and State relations. The position the State and its figures held above the church and its members led to the State appointing the clergy they wanted to their kingdoms. According to the feudal system the lords thought they were supporting the clergy by giving them land, and because of this they felt the clergy in return should serve to the state’s need. This mindset led the kings and lords to the conclusion they had a right to choose the clergy who would hold office in their kingdoms. Lords, of course, would only choose clergymen who would support them. The clergy that were being appointed to office soon were only chosen for political reasons, not religious, and this soon led to corruption. Lay investiture was the specific practice of appointing a nonordained person to a clergy position. Because of the political preferences many men who were not even apart of the clergy were placed in offices of the church, sometimes to very......

Words: 1836 - Pages: 8

The Henrican Reformation

...own hands. ‘Henry had his own clergy annul the marriage with Catherine and in the year 1533 he married Anne.’10 ‘In the same year parliament passed the First Act of Succession, which validated the union and any issues conceived by it.’11 Thus Henry had taken the first step of separating England from Rome, simply because of his own personal desires. However, the ties with Rome had not been completely severed by this marriage, but as Henry continued he begins to desire power over the clergy and what they possess and he feels like it should belong to him. England, like many other countries in Europe, had within in political arena, a unique dynamic with the clergy. The clergy answered to Rome and followed the decrees of the chief pontiff before they took into account the wishes of the King. With the divide between Rome and England already formed, Henry, upon the urging of his council (particularly Thomas Cromwell), decided to go after the power and wealth of the clergy. Henry felt the need to get the clergy on his side, or at least listen to him. ‘Starting in 1533, parliament put forth a series of laws that limited the power of the clergy and gave it to Henry. It forced the clergy to accept the King’s nomination for bishop and they could no longer pass laws without the permission of the King.’12 This effectively reduced the clergy to an arm of the Kings government that could no longer act independently. ‘ During this time, estimates show that the clergy held around one quarter......

Words: 1913 - Pages: 8

Caring for the Caregiver

...doctors, nurses, clergy, and family member caregivers can prove disastrous to the emotional, physical and mental well-being of these responders. Depression, burnout, and compassion fatigue are but a few of the negative results of the continued stress that is placed upon caregivers in their day-to-day dealings with the suffering. More research must be conducted to examine ways to provide awareness to the caregiver and to provide awareness training to physicians and mental health professionals who are consulted by those who are experiencing symptoms associated with caregiving. Furthermore, research must be conducted to ensure that caregivers are made aware of the resources available to them through religious institutions, healthcare providers, and social support so they may reach out and be helped. Caring for the Caregiver The purpose of this research paper is to examine the impact that caring for others has upon those within the caregiving profession. Many studies have been conducted that link caregiver stress with negative effects upon the emotional, mental and physical health of the caregiver. The American Journal of Nursing (2008) states that "the increasing numbers of family caregivers and their associated burdens and costs are a national public health concern.” Compassion fatigue, or burnout, is predominantly found among those professions that interact with pain, death, trauma, and mental health issues on a routine basis. The helping professions of clergy, doctors,......

Words: 3641 - Pages: 15

Rhetorical Retort

...of the clergy. King persuades his audience to back his argument using the rhetorical devices Ethos, Pathos and Logos. King’s first rhetorical device is ethos. He uses this authoritative approach to establish himself as a credible consultant. King first refers to his audience as “Fellow Clergymen”(King 203), in doing so relating himself as a speaker of their own making. Subsequently, he announces himself as the President of the “Southern Christian Leadership Conference”(King 204), to incite his authority furthermore. Finally, King says, “I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth” (King 203). He does this to establish his demeanor as one of respect. His respect establishes his ethos as a reverent spokesman; also his kindness begins to flood the letter with an emotional appeal as well. King continues by emphasizing his sentimental appeal. His usage of Pathos is intended to build an impassioned connection between the clergy and the problem at hand. His initial use of pathos was intended to establish his emotional connection with the injustice in Birmingham. Secondly, he depicts the vast amount of time the community has waited for their rights to be enacted. This is meant to pull at the strings of the clergy’s hearts by emphasizing their 340 year campaign for equality. King uses this emphasis on time because all can emotionally relate with the longevity of their struggle. King’s empathetic approach to convince the clergy was......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Sociology: Money and Emotions

...depends in large measure on the distinctions we draw between the material realm of life more generally and other parts of our lives. He believes the place to begin is to recognize the distinction between the spiritual and the material is a fundamental characteristic of Western civilization. Money at Work - Kevin J. Delaney Delaney begins by explaining that ever since the economy developed, everything has been reducing to an exchange value. The wide array of clergy that Delaney interviewed seem to agree with Wuthnow. He talks about Emile Durkheim argues that all religions deal with the dichotomy between the sacred and the profane. But when Delaney listen to the clergy talk about money, he sensed that money had elements from both the sacred and the profane due to its malleability and fungibility; it is particularly amenable to having elements of both the scarfed and the profane written onto it. Clergy believe that since money belongs to God, it represents more of a qualitative meaning than a quantitative one. Clergy derive this meaning from biblical texts and their practice. They believe that a person’s interpretation of what money means to them is a reflection of their relationship with God. Muslim imams spoke about the role of zakat in Islam which means “to purify.” Muslims are expected to give zakat, one of the five pillars in Islam. Giving 2.5-10% of your annual income to a form of charity is zakat. It is done to help the needy and purify the money you have. Religious...

Words: 818 - Pages: 4

Annotated Bibliography

...misconduct in comparison to those in the Catholic clergy. Dreher, Rod. “Sins of the Fathers.” National Review 54(2) 2002): 27-30. In the article Sins of the Father, Rod Dreher provides a brief history of pedophilia in the Catholic Church. Dreher is a former writer for the NY Post and the current senior writer for the National Review. The article begins with a focus on the initial breaking new report Catholic priest James Porter misconduct. He also focuses on the number of years the behavior was known about by the church, but never reported by the church. Dreher provides a detailed look at the Vatican’s mishandling and the veil of silence in regards to offending clerics. He takes an investigative look at the makeup of a pedophiliac, the money payouts and the effects of such behavior to whistleblowers and Catholic Church congregates. His learned skills a reporter has provided a brief but detailed viewpoint of pedophilia within the Catholic Church withstanding pinpointing blame on any particular group from the lowest level, parishes to the highest level, the Vatican. Hadman-Cromwell, Youtha C. "Power and sexual abuse in ministry." Journal of Religious Thought 48 (1) (1991): 65. This featured article, written by Youtha C. Hardman-Cromwell, focuses on sexual misconduct and abuse with the clergy. As a member of the clergy and theological professor, she is able to provide an insider's perspective of sexual misconduct in the clergy. She takes a look at how the law varies......

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6

Causes of the French Revolution

...HOW, AND WITH WHAT RESULTS, DID THE CIVIL CONSTITUTION OF THE CLERGY CONSTITUTE A TURNING POINT IN THE SUPPORT BASE OF THE REVOLUTIONARIES? The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was passed by the revolutionary government in 1790 with the aim of reducing the power and influence of the church. It also aimed at subordinating the church to the state. The revolutionary government sought to achieve these aims by taking over the responsibility of paying the clergy’s salaries. The bishops would now be elected by the same voters who elected other government officials and they had to be approved by the government rather than by the pope. Finally it was decided that the clergy take an oath of loyalty to the government. Not surprisingly, the civil constitution was strongly opposed by the pope and soon most clergymen rejected it. Other Catholic countries also condemned it. Perhaps the most worrying thing for the government is the way in which it soon antagonised the peasants who had been an important component of the revolutionaries’ support base. This essay seeks to explore the civil constitution and show how it weakened the support base of the revolutionaries as it alienated the Catholic constituency that had been sympathetic all along. The essay will also show how the civil constitution had far-reaching consequences that included civil and international war. The Civil Constitution narrowed the support base of the revolutionaries by antagonising the peasants and civil...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Pizza

...Temple. When the Pastor is unavailable the Associate Pastor is acting head of the clergy. Pastor: Alexandre Orion Associate Pastor: Akkarin Assistant Pastor for the Seminary: V-Tog Pastor Emeritus Retired bishop awarded this honourary title for their services to the clergy and to the Temple. Pastor Emeritus: Kana Seiko Haruki President In our case the President is the chief secular operations officer of the corporation and deals with legal affairs and keeping the corporation legal under Texas and Federal law. He files the reports with the state. The President also concerns himself with the structure of our Temple. President: Br. John Public Relations and Marketing Officers The "Head of Public Relations and Marketing" co-ordinates the "Marketing Team" and acts as spokesperson for the Order. The "Marketing Team" is tasked with community building and informing the public about the Order. Head of Public Relations and Marketing: Akkarin Marketing Officers: PloKoon, Proteus Secretary for the Clergy The Secretary for the Clergy is tasked with the day-to-day communication and secretarial tasks of the clergy such as contacting clergy members, making announcements, arranging schedules, filing reports and maintaining records. Secretary for the Clergy: Rosalyn J Secretary for the Synod The Secretary for the Synod is tasked with the day-to-day communication and secretarial tasks of the clergy such as filing reports, maintaining records and recording meetings. Secretary......

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Analytical Book Review: ‘Damned Women’ by Elizabeth Reis

...Witches were considered as agents of Satan. Reis also observes the changing perception that people had of the devil. She gives the account of the 17th and 18th century where the clergy and the congregation had changed their opinion of evil. The author’s observation gives the importance of the Salem trials. It became the turning point for Christian’s views. The Salem trials as presented by Reis, however, raise the question on the reasons why women were convicted of witchcraft. Another question that arises is the reason why many women made the most confessions. However, one cannot overlook the significance of the book because it gives the accounts that led to the views of Christians today. The author tries to stay focused and true to her message throughout the book. She uses a first-hand account of the people who were present at the time. The arrangement of the book allows readers to stay focused on the issue being presented by Reis. Elizabeth Reis’ book highlights events that took place during the 17th century and part of the 18th century. The two periods offer an insight into the changing perception of the people about Satan. Reis goes further into explaining the role that women played during those trials. She gives an account of evidences from the women as well as the males, magistrates and the clergy concerning the condemnation of the women souls (Reis 32). She tries to focus on the deeds of the women during the trial and explains why some of the women felt they were......

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6

The Great Schism

...Tony Gersick Rough Draft for Peer Review Dr. MacEwan 10 April 2016 The fourteenth century proved to be a traumatic century for the Catholic Church. Starting in the 1290’s the relationship between the King of France, Philip IV, and the Papacy was dissolving due to the attempts by the French crown to control the clergy in France. The French crown achieved its goal with the influencing and persuasion of the papacy to settle in the French city of Avignon and election of a new French pope. Throughout the fourteenth, and into the fifteenth century, the French crown and the church influenced each other in many significant decision making moments that brought historical changes upon both parties. The Papacy settling in Avignon was a result of Philip the Fair’s problem with the pontificate of Boniface VIII and was the onset of French secular involvement in the church. When Philip gained power at the tender age of 17 he was determined to strengthen the monarchy any ways possible. He wanted to change France to the most powerful centralized state in Europe being a feudal country. This meant that the crown had to be the dominant authoritative presence in France, and throughout Philip’s early quest to achieve this dominance he was constantly detested by the Papacy. Pope Boniface VIII was elected 1294 after his predecessor, Celestine V, abruptly resigned as pope. Once elected Boniface brought the Papal Curia back to Rome after Celestine V put the papal court under the patronage of......

Words: 3082 - Pages: 13

Causes of French Revolution

...without the support of the majority. SOCIAL CAUSE There was a rapid growth of industry and rise of the middle class. Simultaneously there was growing burden of feudal dues. The poverty was increasing because of huge taxes. Population was divided into three estates First estate- Clergy class Second estate- French Nobility Third estate- Bourgeoisie and Commoners (which was the majority of population.) The French nobility, and the clergy became increasingly egregious in their abuses of power in the late 1700s. Commoners were suppressed by the superior classes. The higher clergy lived in the midst of scandalous luxury and extravagance. The nobles lived in pomp and luxury. They did not pay any heed towards the problems of the common people of their areas. The Bourgeoisie formed the top most group of the Third Estate. The doctors, lawyers, teachers, businessmen, writers and philosophers belonged to this class. They had the wealth and social status. But the French Monarch, influenced by the clergies and nobles, ranked them as the Third Estate. So they influenced the people for revolution. They aroused the common people about their rights. Thus, the common people became rebellious. The lower Clergies and the provincial nobles also joined their hands with the common people along with the bourgeoisie. So the French Revolution is also known as the ‘Bourgeoisie Revolution’. ECONOMIC CAUSE The economic condition of France formed another cause for the outbreak of the......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4