Disrupting Drug Markets

In: Business and Management

Submitted By robodietpw
Words 1478
Pages 6
Executive Office of the President created the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), as a response to the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The purpose of the ONDCP “is to establish policies, priorities, and objectives for the Nation's drug control program. The goals of the program are to reduce illicit drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences” (The White House, 2006). Each year the policies are updated to reflect the current trends within the illegal world of drug trafficking. Drug use in the last decade has nearly doubled. The Bush Administration updated the policies in February 2006 to achieve the primary goal of reducing drug use within the United States. The President’s strategy focuses on three principal elements: stopping drug use before it starts, healing drug users, and disrupting the market for illicit drugs. This paper will discuss the specifics, origins and goal of the third strategy, “Disrupting the Markets”. The writer will also discuss resources and costs involved for effective implementation and maintenance. Finally, this paper will provide information on the effects of drug use on the community, ethical implications and suggestions to improve this particular strategy. The policy of “Disrupting the Markets” attempts to stop drug trade by attacking the economics of the system. This element of the Bush Administration strategy provides details on progress being done domestically and internationally to “disrupt the availability of illicit drugs, through source country efforts, interdiction programs, and investigative operations. We are attacking market vulnerabilities in the illegal drug trade and applying pressure to reduce profits and raise the risks of drug trafficking” (The White House, 2006). The United States government needs to disrupt drug suppliers’…...

Similar Documents

Pharmaeutical Drug Market

...Pharmaceutical Drug Market It would seem that the market for pharmaceutical drugs is a monopolistically competitive one. It is stated that in a monopolistically competitive market, firms thrive on supporting the differences in their products, and that the differences is products can be very little, very large or even just a perceived difference. It most cases, generic drugs contain the exact same ingerdients, and have the same effect as the name brand drugs that sell at a much higher price. What drives the name brands is their reputation as a company. The name “Advil” will appeal more to consumers than the generic “Ibproufen”. The same goes for prescription drugs. Personally, I have a child who grew up getting chronic ear infections. Being that she is allergic to penicillin, and amoxicillin, the only option for her was the antibiotic Zithromax. At the time, there was no generic version of this drug. We were stuck paying higher prices for this drug that there was no alternative for. Two years later, a generic version was released, and the price was significantly lower. Research and development is extremely important in the world of medication. All over the world, many universities, and other private companies receive a lot of money to research new drugs. Many of the drugs that have helped many people enjoy better lives were a result of research and development. Obviously, not all drugs pay off. Some never make it out of the lab, others never make it......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Drugs

...DRUGS What is drug? A substance that alters the nervous system and consumed without a prescription, may be addictive and its use usually is socially or legally prohibited or restricted to the field of medicine. A legal drug complies with the rules or the laws established by the U.S. Department of Food and Drug Administration. Illegal drugs is contrary to law or is not permitted by law, it is illegal and is punishable in court with jail against crime to health to enforce the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States and bring to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States the Drug Enforcement Administration is in charge of that. Both illegal and legal drugs have a big impact in society, but their effects are different with individuals and in the society. Drugs not only hurt the person taking it. A lot of other people around you suffer the consequences. The drugs interfere with the relationship with the environment, family and work, and they can seriously compromise the learning process, especially for youth and adolescents. In addition, the drug increased the risk of all types of accidents. Therefore, in addition to the individual consequences, is the whole society (in varying degrees) that suffers from drug problems. And these problems are of all kinds: health, economic, cultural, of insecurity. No wonder, therefore, that drugs pose a collective concern and that, to deal with its consequences, many countries have implemented......

Words: 1335 - Pages: 6

Drugs

...presentation about drugs in common and special drugs Drugs in common: What are drugs ? A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages your brain cells are sending to each other, and to the rest of your body. They do this by interfering with your brain's own chemical signals: neurotransmitters that transfer signals across synapses. Drugs lead primarily to a intoxication or emergence of a dependency syndrome. They change the awareness and the perception of the consumer during their impact and beyond. They affect three primal parts of the brain: • The brain stem which is in charge of all of the functions our body needs to stay alive • The limbic system links together a bunch of brain structures that control our emotional responses. • The cerebral cortex is the mushroom-like outer part of the brain. In humans, it is so big that it makes up about three-fourths of the entire brain. It’s divided into four areas, called lobes, which control specific functions. Some areas process information from our senses, enabling us to see, feel, hear, and taste. The front part of the cortex, known as the frontal cortex or forebrain, is the thinking center. It powers our ability to think, plan, solve problems, and make decisions. How do they proceed in our brain ? Drugs......

Words: 2408 - Pages: 10

Disrupting the Status Quo

...Main Purpose The main purpose of the article, disrupting the Status Quo, is to begin addressing the argument of the leadership preparation of an Educational Doctorate program versus a traditional Physical Doctorate program. It is said that the EdD program bases most of its focus on building leaders through research while the PhD program focuses on more of theoretical research. In reading the article, Building an Ethical School: A practical response to the moral crisis is in schools, the basis is laid that educational leaders must learn to reflect on the how of policies and practices. The article laid the groundwork in support that the EdD program gives a leader the opportunity to think, react and relate to real world scenarios based on their research. The Key Questions The question that is ultimately posed in looking at the programs side by side is which program will build the leaders that the future will need? Which program will equip these leaders with the tools they need to become successful and productive? How can educational leaders increase student learning, and how can they foster equity in educational outcomes? Important information Today’s leaders are very different than what they were in the past, and what they will evolve into for the future. (Levine, 2005). Leaders today are people who can rely on policies but also fall back on theory and have a strong basis in experience. The author describes the quality practitioner and shows how various......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

The Potential Risk Involved in Bringing a New Pharmaceutical Drug to the Market

...risk involved in bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market is huge. The actual timescale of the project is longer then a decade, and the success rate is around 1 in a 1000. In fact for every 1000 compounds that are produced only around 30 of these show any sort of promising result. Therefore introducing a new drug into the market does not simply involved one idea and one compound but in fact a complexed process of trial and error so to speak. After years of research on difference compounds have taken place the company can then progress to a stage know as the ‘preclinical stage’. This is where animals are tested upon and it is also the initial stage in the labs. The time scale varies from 3 and a half to four years and the main aim of this stage is to look at the biological activity of the compound and also to evaluate its safety. After the animal testing has been completed they company are not allowed to start testing on humans until their investigational new drug application (IND) has been approved. The company have to file a IND with the FDA, they do so to gain approval to start the next stage, which is on humans. The FDA has 30 days to disapprove. The investigation carried out looks at previous experiments and also information on the new study being evaluated i.e. how is conducting the study, where it is taking place etc. They also look at the chemical structure of the new drug and what its new purpose will be in the market. The next stage of testing is able to......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Consquences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms

...The Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms  All living organisms experience rhythmic changes, which tend to coincide with seasonal or daily environmental changes. These rhythms are known as biological rhythms, which include circadian, ultradian and infradian types.  All biological rhythms are controlled by two different factors - internally (endogenous) through nature, and externally (exogenous) through nurture. Most organisms have internal biological clocks,  called endogenous pacemakers. The main endogenous pacemaker in circadian rhythms is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small bundle of nerves in the hypothalamus, as suggested by Morgan (1995), and Kalat (1998). Kalat suggested that low levels of light lead to an electrical stimulant, which activates the pineal gland in the SCN, located in the centre of the brain, to secrete a hormone called melatonin, which causes sleepiness. Its production of melatonin varies with periods of light and darkness in the environment, and it obtains this information about light in the environment by means of nerve pathways originating in the eyes. Therefore the main exogenous zeitgeber ('time-giver') that controls circadian rhythms is therefore light.  Research that suggests the SCN is the main endogenous factor for circadian rhythms comes from Morgan in 1995. His aim was to determine whether the SCN in hamsters is linked to the dissappearance of their circadian rhythms. He removed the SCN from hamsters and......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Drugs

...of one of the world's most refined drug networks. Today, Mexico is the main provider of heroin to the U.S. market, and the major overseas dealer of methamphetamine and marijuana. Officials approximate that the drug trade makes up 3 to 4 percent of Mexico's $1.2 trillion annual GDP, making as much as $30 billion, and offers employment to about half a million people. Mexico's drug cartels have fought and at times made peace with each other over the years. . The biggest drug cartels in Mexico today include the Zetas, Sinaloa Cartel, Juárez Cartel, Tijuana Cartel, Beltran Leyva, and the Knights Templar. The Sinaloa, are older, more reputable organizations, while others, like the Knights Templar, have emerged more recently. (Council on Foreign Relations, 2014) http://www.cfr.org/mexico/mexicos-drug-war/p13689 The Mexican Drug War, began in December 2006, propelled by then-President Felipe Calderon, The war on drugs has been active for over eight years. The conflict between drug cartels as well as law enforced has had dire consequences on Mexico. Over 60,000 people have been murdered between 2006 and 2012, and the death toll rises every day. In early October, 43 Mexican students disappeared from Iguala, a town in Mexico. These students are yet to be found, investigators are confident that drug cartels were involved in their disappearance and freshly dug graves have been found. (Business insider, 2014) In 2008, the Sinaloa, the largest drug cartel in Mexico and the BLO......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Drug

...As one prescription drug abuser in his early 20’s explained: Once people (pill brokers) know you take them prescription opioids, they’ll start calling you. “Oh, it’s this time of the month.” Then they wait for that person to get their script. They know exactly in their head what day the script’s getting ready to come so they got the patterns down. Pill brokers and dealers reported congregating in open air drug markets typically strip mall and pharmacy parking lots, and outside methadone clinics to buy, sell, and trade prescription drugs. These markets were reported to involve a variety of transactions, including the purchase of prescription drugs for cash, as well as trades for crack and heroin. Pill brokers also reported the purchase of used fentanyl patches from nurses who have stolen them from pain patients or from disposal containers in hospitals. Some individuals frequenting the drug markets also barter their oxycodone for other opioids or benzodiazepines, typically alprazolam. Doctor Shopping focus group participants indicated that even in a small state like Delaware, doctor shopping appeared to be fairly easy. The vast majority of abusers reported obtaining medications through doctor shopping, and most reported frequenting at least four physicians in order to obtain sufficient amounts of their desired medications. Occasionally clinics and hospital emergency rooms were reported as locations for doctor shopping as well. A heavy user stated: Another focus group member...

Words: 3476 - Pages: 14

Social Problems and the Free Market: a Brief Look at Illegal Drugs and Its Market

...Social Problems and the Free Market: A Brief Look at Illegal Drugs and Its Market Nicola Jones Baker Kaplan University Professor T. Ayanou, PhD February 17, 2015 The present research report seeks to show the relationship between a “free market” economy and the acquisition and dispensing of illegal drugs. This report will begin with a general look at what constitutes a “free market” economy and how its aspects of supply and demand are the very cornerstones of its existence. After discussing the concepts of supply and demand, the author will then address how the tenants of supply and demand relate to individual freedoms and individual competitions. Following this section of the present report, the author will seek to discuss illegal drug markets. In the final and closing section of this research report, the author will argue that the social problems created by illegal drug addiction could be managed in a “free market” economy that views addiction as a treatable disease rather than a criminal offense. The fundamental underpinning of a free market system is the competition it generates among those who are vying for the consumers’ dollars. The goal of the free market is for person (A) to provide a good or service that is wanted by customer (B). Person (A) and customer (B) then negotiate a price for that particular good or service. If person (A)’s price is too high or the good or service is inadequate, customer (B) then has the right and freedom to go to......

Words: 2670 - Pages: 11

Drugs

...Drugs Kendall Beard COM/172 May 6, 2015 Brian Townsley In my experience, for decades, many people have debated over the use of marijuana and whether it is good or bad for you. Many scientists have conducted their research on the usefulness of marijuana in the everyday life of people and most have only come back with negative results concerning the plant/drug. In this paper, I hope to prove that smoking marijuana does not cause the same amount of problems that smoking cigarettes might cause. In this paper, there will be few topics touched on concerning marijuana. There are ample cases of people using drugs because of their curiosity, individual freedom and choice, cultural characteristics, or relaxation activities and the substitute for modern medicine. Modern hemp and cannabis are distinctive assortments of the same species, Cannabis sativa. Weed generally contains 3 to 15 percent of the psychoactive fixing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on a dry-weight premise, while mechanical hemp contains 1 percent. Be that as it may, the two mixtures are unclear by appearance. In the United States, Cannabis sativa is delegated a Timetable I controlled substance, paying little respect to its opiate content, under the Controlled Substances Go about as changed. Since 1990, mixtures containing under 0.3 percent THC have been sanctioned in Incredible Austria, England, Switzerland, and Germany. Canada and Australia authorized hemp generation in 1998. In different nations, for......

Words: 1695 - Pages: 7

Drugs

...legalizing marijuana is the physical risks of the drug, both to those using it and to bystanders. Research has shown that marijuana can increase the likelihood of schizophrenia, mainly if the individual started smoking before the age of 18. There are also the health risks associated with smoking, including second-hand smoke for non-consumers, and the probability that driving under the influence of marijuana would be more common. It may also contribute to IQ declines when used by teens, according to a recent study. Although legalization measures include age restrictions, like alcohol and tobacco, legalizing marijuana would make it considerably easier for children to get hold of. This is an obvious consequence of the increased and open availability of the substance, and the fact that marijuana is especially dangerous for adolescents makes this a much more serious consequence. Some individuals also believe that it’s morally wrong to consume marijuana. The fact that people who take drugs are more likely to commit related crimes (such as theft to fund habit) also means that legalizing the drug could potentially lead to more criminals being out on the street. Drug use is another reason police can use to take law-breakers off the streets. There is also a slippery slope argument, which states that the legalization of marijuana would eventually lead to the legalization of all illicit substances. The public could become desensitized to drug use and over time even crack cocaine and......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Policies Used to Tackle Illicit Drug Markets.

...tackle illicit drug markets. In this essay, I want to define how the problem of illicit drug market is tackled by the governments one by one and jointly. I will try to determine which policies are the best in preventing illicit drug market and what policies international community regarding that problem uses. There are 4 types of illegal markets defined by Jens Beckert and Frank Wehinger, and the one I want to focus on is of type 1 (“illegality due to the outlawing of specific products”[1]). Free sale of hard drugs (excluding alcohol and nicotine) is prohibited everywhere and of soft drugs is prohibited almost everywhere. However, the global illicit drug market is huge and it has big impact on international community because of drug trafficking, drug-related crimes and the number of people involved in producing, transporting and selling drugs. States and international communities are making efforts to eradicate drugs from the society spending substantial parts of their budgets. As to international community’s efforts, the United Nations is the prime organization that “controls” drug flows around the globe. Since 1912 Hague Opium Convention, the international community decided to focus on supply side of the global drug market. They decided to allocate all resources on battling the supply side, because they thought that once they control supply side they would prevent drug use and abuse. Such supply-centric policies are damaging countries in which drugs are......

Words: 3772 - Pages: 16

Drug

...Mexico’s Drug War Drug trafficking has become an increasingly growing problem in the world today. Illegal drug trade is a worldwide black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging, and sale of illegal substances. Although today’s "War on Drugs" is a modern phenomenon, drug problems have been a common problem throughout history. The market for illegal drugs is massive, when we consider the estimated global drug trade value is worth $321 billion (Vulliamy). The most drug trafficking happens on the border between Mexico and the United States. Former Mexican President Felipe Calderon said, “Our neighbor is the largest consumer of drugs in the world. And everybody wants to sell him drugs through our door and our window” (Catholic Online). Mexico is the main foreign supplier of marijuana and a major supplier of methamphetamine to the United States. Mexico is responsible for 90% of drugs that comes from the southern border of the United States. Mexico has been a producer and distributer of illegal drugs for generations; the country now finds itself in a battle with powerful and well-financed drug cartels. The corruption in the Mexico, the trafficking of weapons and the violence has made it possible for cartels to keep operating. Since 2006, when president Calderon declared the war on drug cartels, violence in Mexico has increased dramatically. The country has certainly seen a big rise in drug violence, with cartels fighting for control of major shipment routes.......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Drugs

...attractive for drug dealers and users. In New York City there isn’t much evidence proving that the drug market have been totally eliminated. The drug markets have been remodeled due to aggressive police tactics in the neighborhoods. In 1990s, Mayor Giuliani showed a report of drug arrests at an all-time high and mainly because of arrest of marijuana smokers. In 1973 the Knapp Commission report revealed an huge corruption in the police department. The city created “Hands off” policy for police officers towards drug the market. This policy was created to enforce to avoid corruption and bribery. Since the 1970s and 1980s, the drug market has come a long way. People were taking them into abounded large spaces but as time pas on people still continued to obtained drugs like heroin, cocaine and marijuana with little difficulty. In the 1980s, the police began a steady assault on public drug dealing and other misbehavior. During that time, employers refused to hire colored people because of racial profiling. The owners were scared because they got arrested often or searched often. Between 1988-1993 the city created tactical narcotics teams to disrupt the drug markets and slow them down. Distributors closed on every Tuesday or Thursday to avoid ‘ TNT’ working days because they were simply scared. The Police Department has proved to be good at containing and controlling public drug markets In New York City. The public drug market has almost eliminated but as police adjust to drug......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Drugs

...DRUGS Raymarr Shivers COM/220 April 8,2012 Jennifer Gaylor Introduction Dependency on drugs is considered by many as different in kind and is a chronic illness. Some people think that a drug pusher is just like committing murder. Drugs have been with us since the beginning of time. Depending on different eras and cultures drugs are used differently and with agriculture large quantities of drugs are able to be produced. You don’t have to be a rocket scientist to know that the drug epidemic has destroyed many dreams and lives of people of all ages and races. Just about anyone can become an addict when trying out a drug. Most people already know that pain medication is prescribed and available easy and too much and in turn this is creating addicts. In the year of 2010 pharmacies dispensed something like 42 tons of hydrocodone and 69 tons of oxycodone. That’s enough drugs to give each human being in the United States of America 24 Vicodins and 40 Percocet’s. Prescription drugs are exceeding all drugs in levels of abuse. The rates are staggering with deadly results all......

Words: 2189 - Pages: 9