Dysphasia

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By tbtdunn
Words 1200
Pages 5
| | The most appropriate diagnosis for a 10-year-old child who continually makes mistakes in reading aloud such that semantically related words are substituted for the printed word (e.g., “puppy” is read as “dog,” and “woman” is read as “mother”) would be: | | | Student Response | A. | word aphasia. | B. | attentional dyslexia. | C. | deep dyslexia. | D. | phonological dyslexia. | | Score: | 0.09/0.09 | | | 2. | | | Reduced verbal fluency and difficulties in comprehension and production of prosody have been reported following damage to the: | | | Student Response | A. | right insular cortex. | B. | left orbitofrontal cortex. | C. | right orbitofrontal cortex. | D. | left insular cortex. | | Score: | 0/0.09 | | | 3. | | | The vocal intonation that helps us understand the literal meaning of what people say is termed: | | | Student Response | A. | prosody. | B. | syntax. | C. | discourse. | D. | semantics. | | Score: | 0.09/0.09 | | | 4. | | | An alternative hypothesis for fluent aphasia posited by Dronkers and colleagues suggests that the role of the cortex of Wernicke's area is: | | | Student Response | A. | long-term memory for semantic categories. | B. | short-term memory for speech sounds. | C. | identical to that of Broca's area. | D. | short-term memory for mouth movements. | | Score: | 0.09/0.09 | | | 5. | | | Results from electrical stimulation and imaging studies of conscious patients suggest that: | | | Student Response | A. | there is surprisingly little variation in the organization of cortical language areas among subjects. | B. | speech areas occupy a smaller proportion of cortical areas than originally thought on the basis of lesion studies. | C. | localizationist theories…...

Similar Documents

Neurology

...NOT involved- usually due to small vessel disease(if ischaemic) POCS- posterior circulation stroke- could be embolic or small vessel disease Why is this important? TACS- worst prognosis, poorer rehab potential, longer hospital stay as opposed to LACS History Is it acute onset, time of onset of symptoms essential for thrombolysis, witness account if possible Current symptoms (assess if focal or not) Past medical history- Diabetes, HTN, Dyslipidaemic, Ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation Smoking, lifestyle, medications(esp warfarin), intolerances Social history Examination Evidence of heart failure, AF, peripheral pulses Higher mental fns involved?- suggests cortical involvement Dominant- some variant of dysphasia Non dominant- neglect, dyspraxia, spatial disorientation, emotional lability, inattention Motor, sensory, hemianopia Cerebellar or brainstem signs Case 1 YD 60/F Right face,arm and leg weakness and aphasia. Time of onset 08:20 Time of arrival 09:20 PMH – AF on Aspirin Time of CT Brain – 09:54 Thrombolysed at 10:05 What next? What is his main risk factor for ischaemic stroke? Management? Case 2 MM 58/F Significant neglect and left facial droop (TACS or PACS)- likely embolic Time of onset 11:30 am PMH – dyslipidaemia, smoker, PMH stable angina Time of arrival – 12:40 Time of CT Brain - 13:36 Thrombolysed at 13:40 Improvement What next? Risk factors- Dyslipidaemia, smoker ?......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Individual Case Study

...bilaterally to auscultation with a rate of 18 breaths per minute with regular depth and a symmetrical chest. The client’s breathing pattern is non-labored and regular. Gastrointestinal The clients abdomen is rounded with no signs of distension, and The client’s abdomen is soft to palpation with no rebound tenderness. Bowel sounds are present in all four quadrants. The client’s bowel movement pattern is within normal limits once or twice a day with characteristics of soft, formed, brown stool. The clients last bowel movement was clinical day 11/10/2008 in the morning. Nutrition/Metabolic The client is placed on a low fat, low sodium diet. The client has an intake of 80% of her meals and fluids. The client has no complaints of dysphasia. Genitourinary/Renal The client is continent with complications of excoriation on her vaginal surface. The client has no bladder distension. Musculoskeletal The client’s motor grips are symmetrical with a strength of 4+/5. The client is able to perform active ROM with unaffected extremities. The clients transports via wheelchair due to the surgery. Integumentary The client obtains intact, uniformly fair, warm, and dry skin with a elastic turgor. Pain Assessment The client is suffering from acute pain in her right ankle with a grade of 1 on a 1 to 10 scale. The client stated that the pain is dull and not bothersome. Labs Date Lab. Parameter Result Date Lab. Parameter Result 11/8 11/8 11/8 11/8 11/8 The......

Words: 2275 - Pages: 10

Nursing Theory

...experience in terms of self in relation to self and also to the world. For the purpose of the reflection, this essay shall be written in the first person. In accordance with the NMC (2002) code of professional conduct, confidentiality shall be maintained and all names have been replaced to protect identity. Case Study Janet is a 67 year-old lady admitted a week ago for chest infection. We also discovered that Janet had developed a mild form of Type II diabetes mellitus from the levels of sugar in her urine and her blood sugar levels were mildly elevated. Soon after she responded to the treatment, we discovered that Janet is suffering from a mild stroke leaving her with expressive dysphasia. For her plan, we referred her to physiotherapist for her mobilization, speech therapist for her dysphasia and dietician for her dietary control of her type II DM. After 5 days of treatment, we noticed there is improvement in Janet’s condition. However, we realized that we have missed looking into her discharge plan and how she would have to take care of herself upon discharge, as there is no close relative around. I felt inefficient to have missed Janet’s discharge plan. As her nurse in-charge, I then realized that having a patient treated is important, however, care post hospitalization is equally important to achieve optimal health. So, understanding Janet’s background is crucial for me to know if she would be able to care for herself and her own health after discharge. For......

Words: 1034 - Pages: 5

Aft Task 4

...this client for impaired swallowing would consist of a swallowing study, mechanical soft diet, monitoring for signs of pneumonia and aspiration, keeping head of bed at 90 degrees during meals, and thickening fluids as needed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, a speech therapist evaluates impaired swallowing. To show no deficiencies with impaired swallowing the client would not experience coughing or choking during meals and have no signs of pneumonia or aspiration. A dietician assesses nutritional needs that include daily weighing, observing client’s ability to eat, ensuring rest before meals, preparing the client for meals, having supplemental vitamins as part of the diet, and offering mechanical soft diet for her dysphasia. The dietician monitors for signs of malnutrition which include brittle hair and dry skin; evaluating lab values such as albumin, total protein, and electrolytes; and monitoring caloric intake. Impaired urinary elimination pattern includes scheduling voiding every two hours, cleaning perineal area, and assessing neurological status for unawareness of urinary incontinence. Evaluate impaired urinary pattern by showing signs of improvement of client’s awareness of needing to void, no sign of skin breakdown, and monitor client’s intake and output. Physical mobility would be performing range of motion exercises at least twice a day, using a gait walking belt with ambulation, obtaining assistive devices as needed for ambulation, and......

Words: 6555 - Pages: 27

Communication

...societies according to Guyomard (2009). They can affect both men and women of all ages, classes and ethnic origins and is known as the leading cause of death and disability. (Sandin & Mason 1996) As a result of his recent cerebrovascular accident, Mr. Owen’ communication abilities were greatly reduced to what he previously had. He could no longer verbalise whole sentences, and any words or sounds he tried to produce were hoarse in resonance, making it very difficult to understand. Mr. Owen was referred to the Speech and Language Therapist for assessment and was diagnosed under the GRBAS voice scale by Hirano 1981 as being dysphonic which means distorted voice. A further diagnosis of aphasia, or dysphasia as it is sometimes referred to was made. Hicks (2008) explains dysphasia as a consequence of having a cerebrovascular accident the area of the brain responsible for speech and language is damaged, thus resulting in the impairment of a persons ability to communicate. Kenworthy (2002) describes verbal communication as being perceived mainly through the ears. Mr. Owen’ aphasia was a barrier to his verbal communication, his speech would be whispery and hoarse, almost using his breath to speak, very quiet and slow. It was very difficult to understand what he was trying to say. To aid and encourage communication between myself and Mr. Owen I would ensure that we had good eye contact to demonstrate that he had my full attention; my body posture was relaxed and......

Words: 3589 - Pages: 15

How Cultural Differences May Impact on Establishing Effective Communication and Engagement with the Patient.

...In this assignment, I will discuss a patient scenario and reflect on cultural differences in particular how they may impact on establishing effective communication and engagement with the patient. As a nurse, my duty is to respect patients right to confidentiality; ensuring people are informed about how and why information is shared by those who will be providing their care and also about disclosing information if I believe someone may be at risk of harm (Nursing & Midwifery Council 2008). Therefore to maintain confidentiality, I will be giving the name Mrs. B to my patient. Mrs. B is a 72 year old Indian lady. She is a diabetic with poor oral intake, who also recently suffered from a stroke, which resulted in dysphasia. She is a patient who is nursed in bed due to poor mobility and unable to stand unaided. In the case of Mrs. B the main cultural differences was the language barrier. Mrs. B spoke Punjabi and no English so this posed as a challenge to caring for her and had a significant impact on my ability to communicate and engage effectively with this patient. Following her stroke, she now suffers from slurred speech, and can only speak a minimal amount of words. Although she can understand what is being said to her, she was finding it difficult to express herself at times. She refused to eat or take her medications and we had to communicate with her through her husband at times when he was present, as an interpreter was not available at the present time. Mrs...

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Ob Project

...progressive deterioration of end stage motor neuron disease that was diagnosed two years ago. Coupled with a medical history of Alzheimer's disease, renal stones, enlarged prostate, hypertension, and an esophageal rupture, Mr. Khoury's health has continued to deteriorate as evidenced by weight loss, lack of appetite, decreased mobility, muscle wasting, poor oral intake and dysphasia. Prior to his admission to hospital, Mr. Khoury was cared for at home by his wife, however due to severe cognitive disturbances together with motor neuron features, his wife can no longer take care of him at home as she cannot determine his needs or understand his complaints. Mr. Khoury and his wife have both accepted his poor prognosis and deterioration as reflected by orders not to resuscitate, intubate or ventilate. His reason for admission is not an acute illness but to determine which palliative measures can be taken to relieve discomfort whilst correcting his fluid imbalance. A combination of reasons exists as to why Mr. Khoury's fluid and electrolyte imbalance has occurred. Firstly, as a result of Mr. Khoury growing dysphasia, his difficulty in comprehending language combined with decreased communication has led to an inadequate oral intake of medications. Furthermore, coupled with the chronic, degenerative disease of the brain known as Alzheimer’s, a loss of interest in food, diminished appetite and a decreased ability to self-feed have contributed to the deterioration of his health. After......

Words: 3264 - Pages: 14

Human System

...A neurologist, who treats problems of the brain, spinal cord, and nervous system. * A speech-language pathologist, who evaluates and treats swallowing problems. CONCLUSION REFERENCES * http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/difficulty-swallowing-dysphagia-overview?page=2 * http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/324096-overview#a1 * http://www.netguruonline.com/dysphagia-swallowing-disorder-symptoms-reasons-treatment-dysphagia/ * http://www.netguruonline.com/reasons-dysphagia/ * http://www.netguruonline.com/associated-problems-dysphagia/ * http://www.netguruonline.com/medicines-treatment-dysphagia/ * http://www.netguruonline.com/10487/ * http://www.hormelhealthlabsblog.com/what-happens-with-dysphasia/ ...

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Death

...the society can also help me with up to date nursing education rather than historical approaches on how to deal with grieve. Through this module I would like to combine my interest in people’s responses to death and how they grieve and my connection as a nursing student interested in palliative and geriatric care to find out about how people see caring for the dying and dead in the internet era and how this has changed from historical times. Caring for the dying entails providing support for their activities of daily living such as assisted bath, changing of diapers, feeding etc. Besides that, it also deals with limited communication as some will be hooked on life support devices as in acute hospitals while others may be suffering from dysphasia or dementia mainly due to cerebrovascular accident/s (CVA)or other reasons and reside in nursing homes. These people may be in this state of waiting for death to approach for many years especially since medical technology has advanced such that life can generously be prolonged. As for the dead, it would refer to immediate post death generally caring for the body and the last office of. I would like to focus my problem space more specifically to nurses who either work in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes or hospices. I would like to examine how the nurses’ mindset and emotions have changed from the past. It is important for this topic to be examined as Singapore is facing a greying population thus there would be a lot......

Words: 935 - Pages: 4

Heart Review

...means.. due to.. looks.. pt can get.. occurs more in.. scarred tm is.. due to.. preforation of tm means.. due to.. may look like.. hemotympanum is.. due to.. looks.. tophi is.. due to.. sign of.. mastoid process is.. mastoiditis is.. due to .. hard to treat becasue.. tinnitus is.. caused by.. or.. hearing loss can be.. whisper test evaluates.. rinne test for.. bone conduction is.. air conduction is.. ratio should be.. if not that mean.. weber test - evaluates .. should be.. if abnormal .. romberg test assesses .. what is normal.. mouth uvula- hard palate- soft palate- infants are.. baby bottle tooth decay is.. pregnant- older- dysphagia is.. diganosis is.. dysphasia is.. what type of problem.. tongue coated white hair means.. called.. black hairy tongue is both are caused by.. throat.. "ahh" means.. if it does not happen the pt has.. gingival hyperplasia is.. due to.. gingivitis is.. caused by.. or.. if untreated .. tonsillitis is.. looks like.. tonsular stones.. smooth tongue is.. lack of.. carcinoma is.. leukoplakia is cannot.. due to.. can be.. nose/ sinuses sinuses * * * * should not be.. if they are it indicates.. sinusitis is.. may be a .. can cause.. turbinates are.. make the air.. attracks. septum should be.. deviated septum is.. due to.. perforated septum is.. due to.. mucosa should be.. if swollen......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Reflection

...intrinsic to nursing. References: Bulman, C., Lathlean, J. and Gobbi, M. (2012) The concept of reflection in nursing: Qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives, Nurse Education Today 32 (2012), pp. e8-e13 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2011.10.007: accessed on 21/03/2015 Clarke, D.J. and Graham, M. (1996) Reflective practice, the use of reflective diaries by experienced registered nurses. Nursing Review. Vol.15, Autumn, No.1, 26 - 29. Egan, G., (1975). The Skilled Helper: A Systematic Approach to Effective Helping. Pacific Grove CA, Brooks/Cole. GIBBS, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: Further Educational Unit, Oxford Polytechnic. http://www.neurosupport.org.uk/dysphasia-see-aphasia.html accessed on: 22/03/2015 LWW Journals, 8(3), 4. doi:10.1097/01.NME.0000371036.87494.11. McLeod S.A. (2010).Kolb–Learning Styles. Retrieved from Http://www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html: accessed on 21/03/2015 Morgan RJM WF, Wright MM. An early warning scoring system for detecting developing critical illness. Clinical Intensive Care (1997) 8:100. Retrieved from http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/documents/national-early-warningscore-standardising-assessment-acute-illness-severity-nhs.pdf : accessed on 21/03/2015 Nursing and Midwifery Council. (NMC). (2008). The Code - Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwives. London: NMC Patel N V (1994) International......

Words: 2289 - Pages: 10

Stroke

...TABLE 1. The Survey Case vignettes 1. A 70-year-old man is admitted to your service at 3:00 PM with mild right facial weakness and mild word-finding difficulty. He is placed on aspirin. At 9:00 PM, you are called by the nurse because he has increased right-sided weakness with 3/5 strength in the right arm/leg and moderate dysphasia. Head CT is negative. Patient is in sinus rhythm with BP 140/80. Would you use IV heparin? (Yes, no, or maybe). 2. A 70-year-old woman is admitted with mild expressive dysphasia and mild right hemiparesis, which began 6 hours ago. She has a history of atrial fibrillation that was treated with aspirin. She continues to be in atrial fibrillation in the emergency room. BP is 140/80. Head CT is negative. Would you use IV heparin? (Yes, no, or maybe). 3. A 70-year-old man with a history of HTN, DM, and smoking is admitted with a new onset of vertigo, ataxia, and diplopia, which began 6 hours ago. BP is 140/80. Head CT is negative. He is in a sinus rhythm, and he was not on an antiplatelet agent previously. Would you use IV heparin? (Yes, no, or maybe). 4. A 70-year-old woman is admitted with new onset dysphasia and mild right-sided weakness, which began 6 hours ago. She is in sinus rhythm with BP 140/80. Head CT is negative. She has a history of DM and smoking, and you hear a left carotid bruit. She was not on an antiplatelet agent previously. Would you use IV heparin? (Yes, no, or maybe). 5. A 70-year-old man is admitted with 2......

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

Professional Regulation Paper

...Professional Regulation’s for Occupational Therapy In Mississippi Occupational therapists provide skilled care to clients of all ages with dysphasia. Occupational therapists are trained professional that help individuals achieve independence in all aspects of their lives. A few of the health conditions that benefit from occupational therapy include: work-related injuries including lower back problems, limitations following a stroke or heart attack, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, or other serious chronic conditions, birth injuries, learning problems, or developmental disabilities, mental health or behavioral problems including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress, problems with substance use or eating disorders, burns, spinal cord injuries, or amputations, broken bones or other injuries from falls, sports injuries, or accidents and vision or cognitive problems that threaten the ability to drive. For you to be a licensed Occupational Therapist, you have to submit an application for licensure at least thirty days prior to any admissions to work in any facility. Various educational requirements serve as a qualification to a career as a physical therapist. A person must earn a minimum of two degrees from accredited universities, perform volunteer service and comply with certification requirements to complete the educational requirements toward a career in physical therapy. First, the interested person must complete an undergraduate degree with either......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Life of Special Education Teacher

...therapist, speech therapist, and administrators) in and out of the classroom. It leaves not much time for learning because the toileting, hygiene, and eating do take a big part of the day. The teachers usually have a full time assistant in the classroom or two depending on the need in the classroom; this helps the Special Education teacher complete tasks in the classroom. The teacher can work on a student one on one and the assistant can help with the other students needs. (Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Multiple Diablites, 2007) Some of the intellectual disabilities that teachers may encounter I have found are ADHD (Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder), Angel man syndrome, Aspersers Syndrome, Autism, Cri Du Char, Down Syndrome, Dysphasia, Dyspraxia, Epilepsy, Fragile X, Klinefelter Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Prader-willi Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Trismoy, Soto’s Syndrome, Tourette Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis, and Williams Syndrome. (Activ, 2001) References Activ (2001) Types of Intellectual Disabilities. Retrieved on July 13, 2001 from http://www.activ.asn.au/3/3017/8/types_of_intellectual_disability.pm Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Multiple Disabilities. Pat Mimms. Retrieved from Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction, by Michael S. Rosenberg, D avid L. Westling, and James M cLeskey. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. on July 13, 2011...

Words: 301 - Pages: 2

Learning Disability Report

...of movements for speech. Children with dysarthria often have shallow, irregular breathing and speak on small, residual pockets of air. They have low pitched harsh voices, nasalized speech and very poor articulation. | | Characteristics & Causes: affect the articulation of consonants, causing the slurring of speech. In very severe cases, vowels may also be distorted. Intelligibility varies greatly depending on the extent of neurological damage. | | Teaching Strategies: Children with dysarthria are often prescribed communication aids to supplement their natural forms of communication.  | Examples: Inability to move tongue or lips properly, trouble to coordinating muscles used to create speech. | | Aphasia/ Dysphasia | Definition: Aphasia/Dysphasia is considered both a learning and communication disorder where one has difficulty understanding language and poor reading comprehension. | | Characteristics & Causes: Characterized by difficulty speaking and finding the "right" words to complete their thoughts. They may also have problems understanding conversation, reading and comprehending written words, writing words, and using numbers. Is usually caused by a stroke or brain injury with damage to one or more parts of the brain that deal with language. | | Teaching Strategies: Best strategies are to use simple sentences, and create a calming learning environment. Repeat words as needed to aide in the students understanding of the words. | Examples: Poor......

Words: 2472 - Pages: 10