Submitted By samkret1

Words 455

Pages 2

Words 455

Pages 2

Main articles: Papermachine and handmade paper

See also: Air-laid paper

The pulp is feed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying.

Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, felt (not to be confused with the traditional felt) is used to collect the water. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used.

Drying involves using air and or heat to remove water from the paper sheet. In the earliest days of papermaking this was done by hanging the paper sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. These dryers can heat to temperatures above 200 °F (93 °C) and are used in long sequences of more than 40 cans. The heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than 6% moisture.

Finishing

The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.

Paper at this point is uncoated. Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens. (Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above 150 lpi.) Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image.

The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes. The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut "long-grain", i.e. with the grain parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet.

All paper produced by…...

...EXCEL DIGI LAB Hemant Yashwant Satpute Electronic Science Department, Fergusson College, Pune 4 [Affiliated to University of Pune] India (Maharashtra) hys0671@rediffmail.com Abstract Being a teacher, my aim is to always encourage students and other colleague teachers to make optimum use of PC machine which one has purchased and full functionality of the softwares available with that machine. As an example, here I am illustrating use of EXCEL to learn Digital Electronics. One can verify Truth tables and study the working of various logic gates (AND, OR, NOT, EXOR, EXNOR, NAND, NOR), Various combinational logic circuits like Half Adder, Full Adder, Controlled Inverter, Multi bit adder, Multi bit subtractor, Multi bit adder Subtractor, Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Shift Registers, Flip flops, Counters, Parity Generators and checkers using EXOR gates, Encoders, Decoders, Controlled Inverter using EXOR gates and their uses and many more, by entering inputs directly and verifying outputs at various intermediate stages. One can also study use of universal gates to build various logic functions with the help of this tool. These outputs are derived by using various functions built in EXCEL. This was demonstrated to teachers and students. This idea helps teachers to make subject more illustrative and interesting. It has been proved to be an excellent tool for innovative class room teaching. This can be used as a learning material for open source learning and......

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...1 Microsoft Excel 2010 Tutorial Excel is a spreadsheet program in the Microsoft Office system. You can use Excel to create and format workbooks (a collection of spreadsheets) in order to analyze data and make more informed business decisions. Specifically, you can use Excel to track data, build models for analyzing data, write formulas to perform calculations on that data, pivot the data in numerous ways, and present data in a variety of professional looking charts. The Ribbon Understanding the Ribbon is a great way to help understand the changes between Microsoft 2003 to Microsoft 2010. The ribbon holds all of the information in previous versions of Microsoft Office in a more visual stream line manner through a series of tabs that include an immense variety of program features. Home Tab This is the most used tab; it incorporates all text and cell formatting features such as font and paragraph changes. The Home Tab also includes basic spreadsheet formatting elements such as text wrap, merging cells and cell style. Insert Tab This tab allows you to insert a variety of items into a document from pictures, clip art, and headers and footers. Page Layout Tab This tab has commands to adjust page such as margins, orientation and themes. Created By: Amy Beauchemin Source: office.microsoft.com 1/13/11 2 Formulas Tab This tab has commands to use when creating Formulas. This tab holds an immense function library which can assist when creating any formula or......

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...ADVANCED EXCEL TRAINING Quality Management Objective To provide the participants with an understanding of the advanced features of MS Excel Today is 7/22/2011 2 Advanced ® EXCEL Topics Working with Data Lists Naming Cells and Ranges Conditional Functions Lookup Functions Pivot Tables Data Validation Today is 7/22/2011 3 Naming Cells and Ranges Today is 7/22/2011 4 Name cells by using labels Name cells by using existing row and column labels Select the range you want to name, including the row or column labels. On In the Insert menu, point to Name, and then click Create. the Create names in box, designate the location that contains the labels by selecting the Top row, Left column, Bottom row, or Right column check box. Note A name created by using this procedure refers only to the cells that contain values and does not include the existing row and column labels. Today is 7/22/2011 5 Name a Cell or Range Using Names Box 1. Select the cell or range you want to name. 2. Click the Name box on the formula bar. 3. Type a name for the range. A range name can include uppercase or lowercase letters, numbers, and punctuation, but no spaces. Try to use a simple name that reflects the type of information in the range, such as BookTitle. 4. Press Enter. The range name will appear in the Name box whenever you select the range. Today is 7/22/2011 6 Conditional......

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...Project Description: You are an analyst for an art gallery that is an authorized Greenwich Workshop® fine art dealer. You prepared a list of artwork by James Christensen and need to organize the data using an outline, subtotals, PivotTables, and PivotCharts to aid you in analyzing the data, which you will do in this project. Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following tasks: Step Instructions Points Possible 1 Start Excel. Download, save, and open the file named Exploring_e05_Grader_EOC.xlsx. 0 2 Sort the data on the Subtotals worksheet first by the Type column, then by the Art column, both in alphabetical order. 4 3 Subtotal the data at each change in Type. Identify the highest issue price, estimated value, and percent increase. 10 4 Add an automatic outline to the Subtotals worksheet. Group the first and last name columns. Collapse the names columns, and then collapse columns created by the outline (G, H, and I). 7 5 Create a PivotTable on a new worksheet using the data on the Christensen worksheet in the range A1:J19. Use the Type, Est. Value, and Issue Price fields and use the default locations in the PivotTable Layout. 8 6 Modify the Issue Price and Est. Value values to determine the average issue price and average estimated market value by type. 6 7 Insert a calculated field named % Change in Value to determine the percent change in values by type. Format the values in the new column as percentages......

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...Function keys editing in a cell is turned off SHIFT+F2 adds or edits a cell comment. in excel ALT+F1 creates a chart of the data in the current range ALT+SHIFT insert a new worksheet Edits the active cell and positions the insertion point at the end of the cell contents. It also moves the insertion point into the Formula Bar when CTRL+F2 displays the Print Preview window When a cell reference or range is selected in a formula, F4 cycles through the various combinations of absolute and relative references. CTRL+F4 closes the selected workbook window Switches between the worksheet, Ribbon, task pane, and Zoom controls. In a worksheet that has been split (View menu, Manage This Window, Freeze Panes, Split Window command), F6 includes the split panes when switching between panes and the Ribbon area. SHIFT+F6 switches between the worksheet, Zoom controls, task pane, and Ribbon. CTRL+F6 switches to the next workbook window when more than one workbook window is open. Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks. SHIFT+F9 calculates the active worksheet. CTRL+ALT+F9 calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks, regardless of whether they have changed since the last calculation. CTRL+ALT+SHIFT+F9 rechecks dependent formulas, and then calculates all cells in all open workbooks, including cells not marked as needing to be calculated. CTRL+F9 minimizes a workbook window to an icon. Creates a chart of the data in the current range. SHIFT+F11 inserts a new......

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...Microsoft Excel 2010 Formulas & Functions Table of Contents Excel 2010 Formulas & Functions ……………………………………………….….. o Formula Basics ……………………………………………….….. o Order of Operation ……………………………………………….….. Conditional Formatting ……………………………………………….….. Cell Styles ……………………………………………….….. Formulas & Functions ……………………………………………….….. Basic Formulas ……………………………………………….….. o Add the Values in Rows or Columns ……………………………………………….….. o Find the Average, Maximum, or Minimum ……………………………………………….….. Ranges & Individual Cells ……………………………………………….….. Copy a Formula ……………………………………………….….. o Using the Fill Handle ……………………………………………….….. o Using Traditional Copy & Paste ……………………………………………….….. Referencing Cells in Formulas ……………………………………………….….. o Relative References ……………………………………………….….. o Absolute References ……………………………………………….….. o Mixed References ……………………………………………….….. o References to Other Worksheets ……………………………………………….….. o Other Workbook References ……………………………………………….….. Quick Reference Guide ……………………………………………….….. o Add, Subtract, Multiple & Divide ……………………………………………….….. o Understanding Error Values ……………………………………………….….. Practical Purposes of Excel Formulas ……………………………………………….….. o Using Date & Time Formulas ……………………………………………….….. Commonly Used Functions & Formulas ……………………………………………….….. o Math & Trig Icon ……………………………………………….….. Logical Icon ……………………………………………….….. Lookup & Reference Icon ……………………………………………….….. Date & Time Icon ……………………………………………….….. AutoSum Icon ……………………………………………….…........

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...New Perspectives Excel 2013 Tutorial 3: SAM Project 1a Spring Software ENHANCE A TIMESHEET Project Goal M Project Name Project Goal New Perspectives Excel 2013 Tutorial 3: SAM Project 1a Spring Software ENHANCE A TIMESHEET Project Goal M Project Name Project Goal PROJECT DESCRIPTION Devon Hastings is the human resources director for Spring Software, a software development company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He has created a workbook for employees to use in recording the hours they work. He would like your help finishing the timesheet. GETTING STARTED * Download the following file from the SAM website: * NP_Excel2013_T3_P1a_FirstLastName_1.xlsx * Open the file you just downloaded and save it with the name: * NP_Excel2013_T3_P1a_FirstLastName_2.xlsx * Hint: If you do not see the .xlsx file extension in the Save file dialog box, do not type it. Excel will add the file extension for you automatically. * With the file NP_Excel2013_T3_P1a_FirstLastName_2.xlsx still open, ensure that your first and last name is displayed in cell B6 of the Documentation sheet. If cell B6 does not display your name, delete the file and download a new copy from the SAM website. PROJECT STEPS 1. On the Employee List worksheet, select cells A1:B1 and then use the Format Painter copy the format only to the range A2:B9. 2. In cell B1 enter bs001, in cell B2 enter cg001, in cell B3 type dh001, and then use Flash......

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...Excel 2013 Help Page 1 of 8 Keyboard shortcuts in Excel This article describes what Key Tips are and how you can use them to access the ribbon. It also lists Ctrl combination shortcut keys, function keys, and some other common shortcut keys for Microsoft Excel 2013. In this article Keyboard access to the ribbon Will my old shortcuts still work? Ctrl combination shortcut keys Function keys Other useful shortcut keys Keyboard access to the ribbon If you're new to the ribbon, the information in this section can help you understand the ribbon's keyboard shortcut model. The ribbon comes with new shortcuts, called Key Tips. To make the Key Tips appear, press Alt. To display a tab on the ribbon, press the key for the tab—for example, press the letter N for the Insert tab or M for the Formulas tab. This makes all the Key Tip badges for that tab's buttons appear. Then, press the key for the button you want. Will my old shortcuts still work? Keyboard shortcuts that begin with Ctrl will still work in Microsoft Excel 2013. For example, Ctrl+C still copies to the clipboard, and Ctrl+V still pastes from the clipboard. Most of the old Alt+ menu shortcuts still work, too. However, you need to know the full shortcut from memory — there are no screen reminders of what letters to press. For example, try pressing Alt, and then press one of the old menu keys E (Edit), V (View), I (Insert), and so on. A box pops up saying you're using an access key from an earlier version of......

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...Staffing and the availability of RNs in nursing homes creates ongoing circumstances in which LPNs delegate nursing tasks to UAP, even when they know their state’s NPA does not permit such delegation (Mueller, Anderson, McConnell, & Corazzini, 2012). Weydt (2010) proposes that the amount of nursing care that can be safely delegated to nursing assistive personnel is correlated with consistent nursing staff. When RNs and UAP are partnered for the same shifts, positive work relationships can develop, resulting in respect, trust, and effective communication. The familiarity with each other’s work style can enable the nursing assistant to anticipate the RN’s requirements. The RN also knows the nursing assistant’s capabilities and can help develop the assistant’s knowledge about delegated tasks. The RN also can be more confident regarding accountability for patient outcomes. Wendt notes that when the nursing care delivery model uses a partnership approach, delegation potential is high because consistent relationships enhance the knowledge capabilities and foster trust. Communication Essential to any effective nursing care delivery system is communication among nursing staff members. Evidence shows that communication lapses were a root cause of sentinel events from 1995 to 2006 (Institute of Medicine, 2006). As a result, in 2008 the Joint Commission included the need to develop standards for effective communication among staff members in their National......

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...risen substantially in stature and useful strategic output over the last several years, and the risks of presenting a poor project were, for Dammermann, acutely felt. Literally from the very first module of IMP–2000 in November 1999, when teams were put together and matched to mentors and projects, the three members of this project were in complete disagreement about almost every aspect of the project and its development. They disagreed on what the mentor wanted them to accomplish and how they might begin to approach answering the key questions. Furthermore, even though there were some personal interest overlaps, the styles of two team members mixed like oil and water. Despite repeated conversations and interventions by the facilitators to help the team gain momentum, the team floundered, and its work languished. It was painfully obvious to Dammermann that the team had made very little progress in the last several months. The decision about just what to do weighed heavily on her mind. If the team went ahead and presented the poor project in May, Dammermann’s credibility as the director of the training program and her oversight of the project work could be negatively affected. Ending the project now meant that the senior line-manager, who had paid (German deutsche marks) DEM35,000 for this investigation, had wasted his time and his money. Adding to the complexity, one of the project mentors was a senior executive at TEVES, the newly acquired subsidiary of Continental, and this......

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...P rate and y = T P rate. Possible values range from (0, 0) to (1, 1). The “classiﬁcation” that assigns “Test Negative” to every score has FP rate of 0 and TP rate of 0, represented as point (0, 0). The “classiﬁcation” that assigns “Test Positive” to every value has FP rate of 1 and TP rate of 1, represented as the point (1, 1). Joining all known (x, y) points by straight lines, the area under the resulting empirical ROC curve is known as the Area Under the Curve or AUC. The AUC ranges from 0.5, for a test no better than chance, to 1, for a perfect test. The Area Under the Curve is calculated by the summation of the average height multiplied by the width, as follows: ! ! T P (n) + T P (n + 1) 1 2 (F P (n + 1) F P (n)) See Excel Spreadsheets for examples of calculating each point on an empirical ROC Curve. 2 2.1 2.1.1 Information Measures Probability Review Basic Probability Deﬁnitions Joint probability: p(X, Y ) The probability that both X and Y are true. Joint probability is commutative: p(X, Y ) = p(Y, X). Conditional probability: p(X|Y ) The probability that X is true, given that Y is true. Note that “Rates,” PPV and NPV are Conditional Probabilities: True Positive Rate = p(T P T est|+), 3 False Negative Rate = p(F N T est|+), False Positive Rate = p(F P T est| ), True Negative Rate = p(T N T est| ), Positive Predictive Value = p(+|T est P ositive), Negative Predictive Value = p( |T est N egative). Marginal probability:......

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...Applied Statistics Microsoft Excel Decomposition may reduce appeal emphasis on applications. Flow charts help make the analysis decision by identifying technique, computing statistics, and interpreting results. Associated data set accompanies the set purports to build a excel spreadsheet that discovers formula, illustrates the parameters, observes dynamic graphs and simulations that recodes, edits, validate, charts, and automatically links equations, data, and formulas to recalculate the data analysis. Excel recognizes statistical capability conjunction that carries out complex algorithms that implement correlated data columns. Excel quickly analyzes and interprets information filtered into a spreadsheet so the process is much easier then working out these formulas by hand. Excel spreadsheets create charts, graphs, and filters data all into one. Excel uses all of the basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. Fractions and decimals are just as common for interpretation data into a excel spreadsheet. An advantage about excel is you can place any formula into the spreadsheet whether in ascending or descending order and using the same formula, it will automatically compute the answer for the next equation. Another advantage is if information is inaccurate, you can go back and check your work with just a click, unlike using y calculations or by hand you have to erase so much and start all over again, which could be time......

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...Operator: <= / Constraint entry: d9*32% 3. Laser Imaging machines (D7) should be greater than or equal to 28% of the total machines produced (d9*28%); also enter a constraint for less than or equal to 32% (d9*32%) 4. Magnes machines (D8) should be greater than or equal to 38% of the total machines produced (d9*38%); also enter a constraint for less than or equal to 42% 5. Number to make (D6:D8) must be whole units (use int) Verify that all parameters have been entered (set objective, changing cells and constraints), Solve and create an Answer Report. Resave your practice exam. This will still be a macro-enabled file. If you want feedback on your practice exam, please upload your file to Oncourse / Assignment 2 / Excel Case Practice link. On test day you will submit your completed exam to the Oncourse Assignment2 link....

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...Terms Definitions The First step in creating an effective workseet is to make sure you __________. Understand what is required In Excel, a number can contain the charaters ________. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The cell being copied is called the source area (copy area). The range of cells recieving the copy is called the ________. receiving range You ________ a worksheet to emphasize certain entires and make the worksheet easier to read and understand. Format Pressing the _________ keyboard shorcut key(s) selects cell A1. CTRL + HOME How many chart types does Excel offer? 11 Which of the following keys is an alternative to double-clicking the cell to edit it? F2 Which of the following Opton buttons gives options for filling cells following a fill operation? Auto Fill Options A ________ cell in Excel has a numerical value of zero. Blank The ________ AutoComplete list contains those functiond that akohabetically match the letters you type following thr equal sign. Formula The most popular background color is _______. White ________ text often provides a strong visual appeal. Underlined To open the format cells dialog box with the Alignment sheet active, click the Format Cells ________. Dialog Box Launcher Which of the following is an extension of the fill patten Sunday, Tuesday? Thursday, Saturday, Monday Which of the following formula contains the absolute cell reference? =$B$4 A(n) _______ chart provides a simple way to show trends and variatons in a range of data...

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...her plates have serial numbers and decided to record these within her database. When she replaced each plate’s ID with the appropriate serial number, she was unable to use her queries. She wants to know why this has happened. Stephanie also wants to know if each serial number is unique or similar to the assigned ID number she has used in the past. Write a 1-page response for each of the three situations. Include the following items in each response: • Identify a general approach for facilitating the customer over the telephone. What are possible challenges in the given situation? What strategies would help you overcome the challenges? • If causes to the problem or question described by the customer are unclear in the situation, explain how you would further diagnose the problem or question. • Once the causes are identified, describe a step-by-step troubleshooting process to help the customer complete the task. • If the customer has problems understanding your instructions, briefly explain an alternative solution....

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