Fatty Acids

In: Science

Submitted By EmilyCute
Words 1307
Pages 6
Fatty acid biosynthesis
References: Mann, J (1994) Chemical aspects of Biosynthesis, Oxford Science Publications, pp. 10-18 Loudon, M. Organic chemistry Solomons, G. Organic Chemistry

Occurrence of fatty acids in Nature
• Fatty acids are seldom encountered in free form, and are usually found to be esterified with glycerol • Some plants of the Crucifer (mustard) family (which includes cabbages, broccoli, Brussel sprouts) store fatty acids in free, unesterified form. However, this is rare in Nature • Fats and oils are triacylglycerides whereby all of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are esterified • Membrane lipids are phospholipids in which two hydroxyl groups of glycerol are esterified with fatty acids, and one hydroxyl group is modified by phosphorylation which forms the polar (hydrophilic) portion of the molecule

The fatty acid synthase complex - Bacterial fatty acid synthases are aggregates of 6-7 enzymes while in plants and animals this synthase is a dimeric complex of two multifunctional protein which possess seven catalytic sites. Another enzyme, thioesterase which catalyses the release of the fatty - The functional groups responsible for binding to acetyl coA or malonyl CoA are thiol groups belonging either to cysteine (cys) or 4-phosphopantetheine (pant), the structure of which is similar to that of coenzyme A. Phosphopantetheine is attached to serine. -The cysteine active site is located on acyl carrier protein (ACP) while the 4-phosphopantetheine is located on ketoacyl synthase.

Simplified scheme for the reactions of fatty acid synthase (from Solomons)

Enzymes of the fatty acid synthase complex. Thioesterase which frees the synthesized fatty acid by hydrolysis is not covalently linked to the other enzymes

Dimeric structure of the complex. The thiol group is the reactive functional group on the catalytic sites

acetyl coA and…...

Similar Documents

Acid Rain

...Acid Rain --------- Acid Rain is caused by pollution containing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and ozone ( SOý, NOx, and Oý ) is released into the air. These chemicals are absorbed into clouds and results in Acid Presipitation ( Acid Rain, Acid Snow, Acid Hail, Acid Sleet ). When the chemicals aren't absorbed into clouds, they can drift for miles and fall to the ground, resulting in Acid Deposition, or dry deposition. When Acid Rain falls into water it is mixed in with the normal water and causes the pH of the entire body to be raised. Measurments on the pH ( potential Hydrogen ) scale, rise exponentialy, thus, a lake with a pH of 4 is ten times as acidic as a lake with a pH of 5, and a lake with a pH of 3 is 100 times as acidic, After many rain falls of Acid rain, the pH of a normal lake ( 5.8 ) to 4. Acid Rain has been known to reach the acidicy of pH 2, ( battery acid has a pH if 1 ) this is a drastic change, as normal rain is average pH 5.2. Acid Rain can dissolve limestone and chalk, and corrodes outdoor structures. Statues and monuments that are left unprotected can fall victim to the unpredjudiced destruction of acid rain. Acid Rain reacts to different types of soil and rocks in two ways. 1) Acid rain will dissolve alkaline rocks and soil, or will neutralize the alkalinity. 2) Acid rain will increase the acidicy of already acidic rocks and soil, such as......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Amino Acids

...      Amino acid structure and properties Detection of the size of proteins Covalent structures in proteins Overview of chemical and biosynthesis of proteins Topogenesis Post-translational covalent modification of polypeptide chains 4 Amino Acids     Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain that is specific to each amino acid The amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (the α– carbon ) In some amino acids, the amino group is attached to a different carbon atom; for example, in gamma-amino acids (such as gamma-amino-butyric acid) the carbon atom to which the amino group attaches is separated from the carboxylate group by two other carbon atoms The various alpha-amino acids differ in their side-chains (Rgroup) that is attached to their alpha carbon, and can vary in size from just one hydrogen atom, such as in glycine to a large heterocyclic group, such as in tryptophan 5 Amino Acids      Amino acids serve as the building blocks of proteins Twenty two amino acids are naturally incorporated into polypeptides and are called proteinogenic or standard amino acids (20 are encoded by the universal genetic code) Humans can synthesize only 11 of these amino acids from each other or from other molecules of intermediary metabolism The other 9 must be consumed in the diet, and so are called essential amino acids : histidine, isoleucine...

Words: 3947 - Pages: 16

Acid Reflux

...Acid Reflux: New ways to treat an old issue Stacy C. Darracott NS304 Professor Linda Flowers Park University For my position paper I plan to discuss the several techniques used in treating acid reflux. Since the majority of the population suffers from some form of Acid Reflux, myself included, I thought that this would be a great opportunity to do some research on the different treatments, and find out exactly why and what causes it. My paper will take a closer look at the non-pharmaceutical approaches that are surgical in nature or homeopathic in nature. Lastly, my paper will not only help the reader to understand what acid reflux is exactly, but will help to inform them as well as myself, to the every changing techniques and practices of physicians who are trying to help those who suffer from acid reflux, a better a ray of choices when discussing their treatment plans. Gastro esophageal reflux disease is a consequence of the failure of the normal anti reflux barrier to protect against frequent and abnormal amounts of gastro esophageal reflux. It is the gastric contents moving effortlessly from the stomach to the esophagus. It is a normal physiologic process that occurs multiple times each day especially after large meals. Possible factors determining whether reflux occurs include abdominal straining, presence of hiatal hernia and degree of esophageal shortening and duration of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. Pregnancy also increases......

Words: 1531 - Pages: 7

Amino Acids in Your Diet

...It is important to have amino acids and proteins in your body with any diet. Essential amino acids are those supplied by the diet, since the human body either cannot make them at all or cannot make them in sufficient quantity to meet its needs.Because your body needs amino acids for healthy nerve and brain functions and also for remolding muscles and bone tissues to function properly. If you don’t get enough amino acids it will result in degradation of the body’s proteins your body will pull it from your muscles and so on. Your body also does not store any amino acids for excess uses later; you must get it from foods. You will not get any amino acids from carbohydrates because they are mainly made of sugars and starches not protein which make amino acids. All amino acids have a similar chemical structure—each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group that makes proteins more complex than carbohydrates The reason we need to have proteins in our diets is to give our body’s energy and also help our bodies grow. It also helps regulate the balancing of water and nutrients in our body. Proteins are what makes amino acids for our body and help it function and to keep everything healthy. Proteins maintain fluid balance and acid and base balance. They also transport substances such as oxygen, vitamins, and minerals to target cells throughout the body. Carbohydrates give your body energy also but when the body does not need that......

Words: 572 - Pages: 3

Fatty Liver

...Archive of SID CME Article Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Jamali R1*, Jamali A 2 1- Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I. R. Iran 2-Student Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran Received March 2, 2010; Accepted May 22, 2010 Abstract: Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is among the prevalent causes of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Here, we discuss the best diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the disease. Materials and Methods: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, etiologies, natural course, differential diagnosis, treatment options, complications and follow up of the disease are reviewed in this paper. Results: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease seems to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Liver function tests and sonography can be used as the appropriate screening tests for diagnosis. Weight loss and control of hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus might be the best therapeutic approaches. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may decrease mortality and morbidity rate associated to the cardiovascular complications of the metabolic syndrome. Keywords: Fatty liver, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome x, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Therapy * Corresponding Author. Email: raika.jamali@gmail.com Tel: 0098 361 555 0026 Fax: 0098 361 555 8900 Conflict of Interests: No Feyz, Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Summer...

Words: 8436 - Pages: 34

Can Essential Fatty Acid Supplementation Play a Role in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

...Can essential fatty acid supplementation play a role in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? For submission 22nd April 2006 Dissertation, 3rd Year ION Contents Abstract 3 1.0 Introduction 4 1.1 Prevalence 4 1.2 Diagnosis 4 DSM-IV Checklist for Diagnosing ADHD 6 Figure 1. DSM-IV Checklist for Diagnosing ADHD 6 1.3 Associated Conditions 7 1.4 Prognosis 7 1.5 Aetiology 7 1.5.1 Genetics 8 1.5.2 Environmental Influences 8 1.5.3 Essential Fatty Acids 8 1.5.4 Food Sensitivities 9 1.5.5 Heavy Metal Toxicity 9 1.5.6 Nutrient deficiencies 9 1.5.7 Pregnancy/birth trauma 10 1.5.8 Hypoglycaemia 10 1.5.9 Digestive 10 1.5.10 Thyroid 11 1.6 Clinical Management 11 1.7 Understanding the Role of Essential Fatty Acids 12 1.7.1 What are Essential Fatty Acids? 12 Figure 2. Major Food Sources of Essential Fatty Acids 12 Figure 3. Omega-3 and Omega-6 metabolic pathways 13 1.7.2 Essential Fatty Acids and Brain Function 13 1.7.3 Physical Signs of Fatty Acid Deficiency 14 2.0 Literature Review 15 2.1 DHA Supplementation 15 2.2 Combined DHA, EPA, GLA Supplementation 18 2.3 Combined EPA, DHA, ALA Supplementation 19 2.4 ALA Supplementation 22 2.5 Summary of studies reviewed 23 Figure 4. Summary of Studies Reviewed 23 3.0 Discussion 24 3.1 Future Research 27 4.0 Conclusion 28 5.0 Nutritional Strategy 29 5.1 Benchmarking 29 5.2 Dietary Strategy 29 5.3 Lifestyle Strategy 29 5.4 General Supplement......

Words: 9455 - Pages: 38

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

...“The need to consume omega-3 fatty acids: not a fad” Everyday Americans are bombarded with tons of stories about studies and investigations related to the latest findings in food issues. Not too long ago, a recent study conducted by UCLA made it to the NBC news, putting omega-3 fatty acids on the spotlight. The study evaluated the omega-3 intake of 1600 individuals, with an average age of 67, to see the impact of this nutrient on the brain’s functions. Researchers found that those individuals with lower levels of omega-3 consumption had poor problem solving skills, less abstract thinking, lower visual memory, and an overall lower brain volume. This has brought to the attention whether omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for the brain’s functions, the sources from where they are available, and the recommended doses by specialists. As seen in the video, and supported by further research, omega-3 fatty acids, also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are key nutrients for the body. These fatty acids have been linked with the brain’s development and its functions, and have been proven to be involved in preventing aging and deterioration of the brain (Simopoulus, 2011). The American Heart Association has also referred to omega-3 as beneficial for reducing possible heart disease, encouraging people to consume those food that are rich in these fatty acids. Other possible benefits that have been related to the......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Acid Rain

...Acid Rain – Save the Environment Acid rain, or any other form of precipitation with high nitric and sulfuric acid levels is when the precipitation has a lower pH than natural unpolluted rainwater, 5.5 (National Geographic). Acid rain is the result of combustion of fossil fuels which releases acid chemicals into the air (Wysession, Michael). It is a problem in the world since it effects natural and man-made environments as well as other factors in negative ways. The unpolluted water that rains down on us is always slightly acidic with a pH of around 5.6. This is because the rainwater from the clouds react with the CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) that is in the air. It is in the air due to that we convert the oxygen that we inhale into CO2 inside of our bodies, which we later exhale. This results in a solution called Carbonic Acid. (Wysession, Michael) Water | + | Carbon Dioxide | | Carbonic Acid | H20 | + | CO2 | | H2CO3 | Rain counts as acid rain when it goes below the unpolluted rain pH, 5.6. The acidity of acid rain can be as low as 2.7 on the pH scale depending on the ratio of chemical acids and unpolluted rainwater. However, the usual pH of acid rain is around 4.0 which is more than 10 times more acidic than unpolluted rainwater. (Wysession, Michael) Acid rain can be caused by natural sources such as volcanoes. However, the main cause of acid rain is when the acidic chemicals sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are released into the air by the combustion......

Words: 2323 - Pages: 10

Fatty Acid

...Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 104 (2002) 785–791 William E. Neff, Fred Eller, Kathleen Warner 785 Composition of oils extracted from potato chips by supercritical fluid extraction* To determine effects of two extraction procedures on oil compositions, tocopherols, monoacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, polymers and polar components were determined in oils after extraction from potato chips by either supercritical carbon dioxide or hexane. Potato chips were fried in cottonseed oil or low linolenic acid soybean oil and sampled after 1, 10 and 20 h of oil use. Both extraction methods recovered comparable amounts of oil from the potato chips. Compositions of triacylglycerol and non-triacylglycerol components including tocopherols, monomer, polymer, monoacylglycerol, diacylglycerol were similar for samples of chips fried in either oil except for the δ-tocopherol data for potato chips fried in the low linolenic acid soybean oil used for 10 h of frying. There were some differences between the composition of low linolenic acid soybean oil extracted from the potato chips compared to the fryer oil at the 20 h sampling time. These results showed that the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction gave similar results to hexane extraction in yield and composition of oils from potato chips. Keywords: Supercritical fluid extraction, oil composition, tocopherols, cottonseed oil, low linolenic soybean oil, frying, fried food. National Center for......

Words: 5477 - Pages: 22

Free Fatty Acids

...Rapid increase in total Free Fatty Acids (FFA), growth of mold and bacteria number happened in between 0 to 30 hours (first phase) of fermentation at 32°C. Spore-forming bacilli such Bacillus licheniformis and B. cereus which survive the boiling process has generation time of 95 minutes. Mold growth is slow during the first 15 to 20 hours and is commonly invisible to naked eye. As silvery-white hyphae start to appear and make connections between the beans, changes suddenly accelerate. The bean surface is covered with a white mycelium that gradually becomes thicker, and the spaces between the beans are quickly filled with the white mycelia mass. At the beginning of second phase, which is about 30 to 50 hours, the tempeh is ready to harvest. The number of bacteria and mold growth stop their rapid increase and either reduce or increase only slightly in numbers. Taste tests revealed that the tempeh reaches its mature state with maximum appealing flavor, color, texture, and aroma at the beginning of second phase, which is after 30 hours. Slightly overripe tempeh is that harvested 36 to 65 hours. The tempeh will develop a smell of ammonia, darkening color, stickiness, collapse of texture, and loss of pleasant flavor towards the third or deterioration phase. (Shurtleff and Aoyagi, 1979: 187) Changes in chemical composition of the soybeans occur during preparation and fermentation processes. (Iljas, Peng and Gould, 1973: 17) Steinkraus et al. (1961) stated that 1 to 2% of solids......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Acid Rain

... Grade 7 St. Albert The Great Acid Rain Acid rain is rain that has been made acidic by certain pollutants in the air. Acid rain is a type of acid deposition, which can appear in many forms. Wet deposition is rain, sleet, snow, or fog that has become more acidic than normal. Dry deposition is another form of acid deposition, and this is when gases and dust particles become acidic. Acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air where they rise and mix with water, oxygen and other chemicals. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides dissolve very easily in water and can travel great distances to combine with the moisture in the air. The way that acid rain damages plants is very subtle.Over time, the acidic water alters the pH of the soil where your plants are growing, binding and dissolving vital minerals and carrying them away. Acid rain also falls directly on aquatic habitats. Most lakes and streams have a pH between 6 and 8, although some lakes are naturally acidic even without the effects of acid rain. Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water, which are located in watersheds whose soils have a limited ability to neutralize acidic compounds. Acid rain can cause serious problems for many different animals and humans ......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Ascorbic Acid

...Ascorbic acid is one of the important water soluble vitamins. It is essential for collagen, carnitine and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Most plants and animals synthesize ascorbic acid for their own requirement. However, apes and humans can not synthesize ascorbic acid due to lack of an enzyme gulonolactone oxidase. Hence, ascorbic acid has to be supplemented mainly through fruits, vegetables and tablets. The current US recommended daily allowance (RDA) for ascorbic acid ranges between 100–120 mg/per day for adults. Many health benefits have been attributed to ascorbic acid such as antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulator and prevents cold etc. However, lately the health benefits of ascorbic acid has been the subject of debate and controversies viz., Danger of mega doses of ascorbic acid? Does ascorbic acid act as a antioxidant or pro-oxidant ? Does ascorbic acid cause cancer or may interfere with cancer therapy? However, the Panel on dietary antioxidants and related compounds stated that the in vivo data do not clearly show a relationship between excess ascorbic acid intake and kidney stone formation, pro-oxidant effects, excess iron absorption. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies on anti-carcinogenic effects of ascorbic acid in humans did not show any conclusive beneficial effects on various types of cancer except gastric cancer. Recently, a few derivatives of ascorbic acid were tested on cancer cells, among them ascorbic acid esters......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Acid Rain

...Acid rain is defined according to the Dictionary as any form of precipitation whether it is snow, rain or sleet that has a high concentration of acid forming contaminates that come from coal smoke and chemical manufacturing that release sulfuric and nitric oxides. These such contaminates are released into the earth’s atmosphere and combine with water vapor. Acid rain is very harmful to the earth’s environment. In 1963 acid rain was discovered in the White Mountains of New Hampshire at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. At this experimental site they found that the PH level was 3.7 from the rain water collected, that means that it was 80 times more of an acidic level than what would be found in normal water. Some of causes of acid rain are both man made and some that are natural in nature. The causes of acid rain that are manmade are caused by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal. These fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity that powers our homes. When these fossil fuels are the winds pick up the sulfuric and nitric oxide contaminates over large areas of land and fall back to the surface as acid rain. The way that acid rain is found naturally is through the eruption of volcanoes, fires and vegetation that is rotting through decomposition which produce sulfur dioxide and lighting that produces nitrogen dioxide. The effect that acid rain has on the forest life can be absolutely devastating by making trees and other plant life more likely......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Fatty Acids in Red Wine

...Fatty acids in red wine make it taste fruity. intro: - red wine :  red wine is so loaded with antioxidants that it’s necessary to indulge in it regularly * heart benifits. * compounds * list of fatty acids: polyphenols - Essential fatty acids are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids made from linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids.  Aroma analysis indicated treatments accounted for an average of 59% of the variance in aroma for all three seasons (Figure 1). GDC wines were distinguished by overall aroma intensity, and fruity, sweet vanilla aromas. Aroma descriptors appeared to cluster around growing season. For example, wines produced in the cool, wet, 2003 vintage with limited fruit Brix were generally characterized by vegetative aromas, while those produced in the drier and warmer 2004 vintage had higher fruit and overall aroma intensity. Figure 1. Principal component analysis (PCA) of aroma of Viognier wines produced on Geneva Double Curtain (GDC), Smart-Dyson (SD) Down or Up, and Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) training in 2003 through 2005. Figure 1. Principal component analysis (PCA) of aroma of Viognier wines produced on Geneva Double Curtain (GDC), Smart-Dyson (SD) Down or Up, and Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) training in 2003 through 2005. ---- GLOSSARY of Wine-Tasting Terminology ACETIC (see also ASCESCENCE). All wines contain acetic acid - (ie: vinegar). Normally the amount is insignificant and may even enhance flavour. At a little......

Words: 297 - Pages: 2

The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

...The tricarboxylic acid cycle is a series of metabolic reactions, involving both catabolism and anabolism in its cycle, to metabolise glucose or fatty acids or amino acids. Aerobic glycolysis leads to the TCA cycle producing two pyruvate, which are to be used as an Acetyl COA supply. The main functions of the TCA cycle are to improve ability of respiration to produce energy in the form of NADH carrier co enzymes which pump electrons into the electron transport chain which then makes ATP using the motility involving ATP synthetase. One NADH leads to 2.5 ATP molecules being formed. Another function is to produce metabolic precursurs for biosynthesis. The TCA cycle is initiated when an irreversible condensation reaction involving acetyl COA – SH binding to oxoaloacetate, which is catalysed by citrate synythetase producing the 6 carbon molecule Citrate. Citrate once formed then undergoes an isomerisation reaction in the presence of aconitase, turning first the citrate into an intermediate known as cis-aconitase and then into isocitrate. The 6 carbon Isocitrate is then irreversibly catabolised via an oxidative decarboxylation by the enzyme Isocitrate dehydrogenase which is like PDH as it is a multi enzyme complex. The intermediate oxal succinate is formed which is quickly converted to the 5 carbon Alpha ketoglutarate, releasing a CO2 molecule and a reduced NAD for the electron transport chain. Another oxidative carboxylation occurs due to the enzyme alpha ketoglutaraten and the......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3