Female Genitalia

In: People

Submitted By jo26jo
Words 1577
Pages 7
Rites of Passage: Female Genitalia Cutting

Cultural Anthropology ANT101

Rites of Passage: Female Genitalia Cutting

Have you heard of Female Genitalia Cutting or FGC? It is not an unknown practice here in the United States, but laws prevent it from occurring here. In other cultures in other countries Female Genitalia Cutting is being performed to children as young as 5 years old. In Cultures like Maasai in Tanzania and Shendi in Sudan these procedures are being performed on children as young as three. Is this a form of mutilation? Or is it the right thing to do to a child? Growing up in these cultures they are taught that this is the right thing that must be done, to show that they are fertile, to show their fidelity. A tradition that goes back over a hundred years and their “stubbornness” to end tradition keeps this rite of passage going.
Female Genitalia Cutting is the cutting of the female external genitalia, there are four forms of female genitalia cutting according to the World Health Organization also known as WHO. Clitoridectomy, excision, infibulation and other which is any harmful procedure done for non-medical reasons such as piercings. All of these procedures are normally done by a person who has no medical training and can cause death or infection to the person it is being practiced on. Clitoridectomy is cutting the clitoris as what the name says, the excision removes the clitoris and labia minora and the most invasive is the infibulation which reconstructs the labias and are sewn together and may or may not cut the clitoris only leaving a small hole to pass urine or menstrual bleeding. These procedures are done without any medication for pain or to numb the area that is being cut or sewn together, causing many difficulties such as hemorrhaging, infections, pain during sexual intercourse, pain during urination and may cause problems…...

Similar Documents

Female Gential Mutilation

...Female Genital mutilation also known as “female circumcision” is an invasive surgical procedure, prefermormed in African cultures on females age 7 days to 15 years old. Though there are four different types of surgery, they all require the complete or partial removal of varies parts of the female genital organs. The surgery can consist of pricking or tampering with the clitoris with a forgeign object Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons."[1] The practice is carried out by some communities who believe it reduces a woman's libido[3] — an official with the top Muslim clerical body of the largest Muslim-majority nation of the world, the Indonesian Ulema Council, said the practice (of FGM) is a religious obligation that should be done to control women’s sexual desires.[4] The WHO has offered four classifications of FGM. The main three are Type I, removal of the clitoral hood, almost invariably accompanied by removal of the clitoris itself (clitoridectomy); Type II, removal of the clitoris and inner labia; and Type III (infibulation), removal of all or part of the inner and outer labia, and usually the clitoris, and the fusion of the wound, leaving a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood—the......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Female in Sports

...The Emerging of Females in sports In order to fully understand the impact Title nine had on sports, one must examine the life of female’s athletes. First and foremost, female athletes were insignificant; they were over looked and discredited. Male athletes were convinced beyond any doubt that it was them, and them alone, who possessed the ability, talent and charisma needed to succeed in the sports arena. This awe confidence did, however, have its drawbacks as demonstrated by male’s inability to competition from those who disagreed with their enlightened options, views, and decisions. Women's sports include amateur and professional competitions in virtually all sports[->0]. Female participation in sports rose dramatically in the twentieth century, especially in the last quarter, reflecting changes in modern societies that emphasized gender parity. Although the level of participation and performance still varies greatly by country and by sport, women[->1]'s sports have broad acceptance throughout the world, and in a few instances, such as tennis[->2] and figure skating[->3], rival or exceed their male counterparts in popularity. An important aspect about women's sports is that women usually do not compete on equal terms against men. Historically, it has been understood that the "natural order of the universe" consisted of man to the marketplace, woman at home with her family, woman the mistress of domesticity, man the master of all else, man the rational thinker, woman the...

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5

Africa: Female Genital Mutilation

...Africa: Female Genital Mutilation GEO102B: Final Project May 20, 2013 Female circumcision seems to be the hottest trend in the United States right now. Females are having the hood of their clitorises removed to gain greater sexual pleasure and sensation. Another type of female circumcision done in the United States, which is considered cosmetic, is having the labia reshaped and evened up. According to Sandra Bell, there are unsubstantiated reports that some women in the United States are in communities where an extreme form of female circumcision is the ritual sacrifice of the entire external clitoris (Bell, 2012). In Africa an estimated 114 million women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), that consists of partial or total removal of the external female genitalia (WHO, 2012). In Africa those procedures are not done for pleasurable or cosmetic reasons. FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women in Africa. Before we label female circumcision a trend, we need to be informed of what FGM is considered in other countries, why it’s done, and what is being done to eliminate this practice. FGM is mostly practiced in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa. It was a part of the tribal coming of age and remains, a cultural, not a religious practice. It is highly controversial and condemned by most religious organizations. FGM is practiced in many forms. ......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Female Entreprenuership

...investigate the state female entrepreneurs with an emphasis on female entrepreneurs from Saudi Arabia. The paper will employ a qualitative approach to try and understand how female entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia have managed to start and manage their enterprises. The reasons that motivated women to take this approach in the business world will be interrogated, the challenges that face them and the means used to mitigate those problems will also be investigated. This thesis will look at the internal and external barriers that are faced by female entrepreneurs. The factors that form the conventional support network for women in business around the globe will be analyzed in a bid to show the to which they have been applied in Saudi Arabia. Using established research literature, the common problems faced by female entrepreneurs are well stated, this paper will go further to show how progress has been achieved and the factors that have facilitated a resurgence of entrepreneurship in this Middle Eastern country. Female Entrepreneurship In Saudi Arabia Female entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia could the next frontier for the improvement of the Middle Eastern economy. A sector long overlooked due to the conservative nature of the Islamic society (Elamin & Omair, 2010), men have traditionally been looked upon to lead the way in business. However, recent development point to a paradigm shift as more Saudi women are making their mark in the business world. The female entrepreneurs need......

Words: 2974 - Pages: 12

Female Rights

...Stebbens Wells; she began her career with LAPD in 1910 and Lola Baldwin in 1908 Portland Oregon. * These woman were officers who were restricted to positions as jailers or police matron * By 1915 female police officers were employed in 25 different cities, which eventually pave the way for Ellen O’Grady, who became the Police Commissioner of New York City in 1918. 1. Substance abuse, mental illness, and spousal abuse. One of the most significant risk factors is prior victimization 2. Sexual Harassment (Internal Barrier)- some female are scared to file sexual harassment complaints on a male officer. Administrators should take gender discrimination and sexual harassment complaints seriously and assume the proactive role of impartial facilitator when addressing these complaints. Compared to Male Peers, rather it be mental or physical, they always feel that they have something to prove in a male dominated job. Administrators should recognize that differences do exist between female and male police officers. And that those differences biologically and psychologically can be harnessed into positive work actions. They do not reduce the competence level and capabilities of female officers when performing their law enforcement job duties. Tokenism- female police officers may be at times evaluated, promoted, and hired as “tokens” to satisfy statistical requirements of the government or political needs Law enforcement administrators should seek the......

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Female Husbands

...marriage is between a female wife and a male husband. However, within the Nandi society, the existence of woman/woman marriage is apparent. The aim of this essay is to discuss and evaluate whether the female husband in this woman/woman union is a man, with reference to the article, “Is the Female Husband a Man. Woman/Woman Marriage among the Nandi of Kenya, written by Oboler. The factors that will be discussed will be the requirements for inheritance, gender roles and the husband/wife and husband/child relationship. One can suggest that the female husband is not a man due to the pure fact that biologically the female husband is not a male but a female. The first factor that will be discussed is the requirements for inheritance. Within the Nandi society property and livestock is held and managed exclusively by men. (Oboler, R.S.1980:136) Therefore, a son is needed to transfer ownership of land and livestock from one generation to the next. In instances where a woman has born no sons, she marries a younger women in the hope that she may bear a male child in order to provide an heir for her assets. Sons are also needed to continue the family name else the family name will die. In conventional families and households the role of man is breadwinner, protector and provider. Men are responsible for certain aspects of physical labour, they oversee livestock e.g. cattle and hold the position of head on the household. Within the woman/woman marriage the female husband, “adopts the......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Female Mutation

...Sean Joseph, RN Female Genital Mutilation Controversy The removal of external female genitalia has been part of a celebrated ritual in the lives of girls and women in some cultures and countries for centuries. Despite growing international campaign to abolish female genital mutilation (FGM), many still see this tradition as an effective and acceptable method of controlling women's attitudes toward sex and sexuality and of ensuring their virginity and suitability for marriage. An estimated 120 million girls and women have undergone FGM, and approximately 2 million procedures are performed annually on girls under the age of 11, most commonly performed in Africa, it is also practiced in parts of Southeast Asia, the Middle East and in Central and South America. In countries such as Sierra Leone, an estimated 90% of women have undergone FGM. A least invasive form of FGM known as the clitoridectomy, also known by the Arabic term Sunna, involves excision of the prepuce and part or the entire clitoris. The second form, "excision," involves removal of the clitoris and part or all of the labia minor. "Infibulation," which means "to fasten with a clip or buckle," is the most invasive form and is most common in Somalia, Ethiopia, parts of Kenya and the Sudan. It involves removal of the clitoris, all of the labia minor and part or all of the labia majora, and the pinning or stitching of the two sides of the vulva closed. A narrow opening is left for urinary and menstrual outflow......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Female Mutilation

...Female Genital Mutilation Female genital mutilation is done to women in countries such as: Africa, the Middle East, and South East Asia. It is a procedure in which the genitals of a young girl or child or removed or circumcised. In countries where this is practiced, society practices it as a tradition and those who do not are not accepted. There are several side effects from going forth with the practice of female genital mutilation. This includes: urine complications, bleeding, scaring, pregnancy complications, aids, mental issues, and even resulting in death. Even with all of the negative effects of Female Genital Mutilation, if given the option of pro-choice, some girls would not feel untraditional, it will not be practiced illegally, and there could be better medical procedures taken into consideration. History of Female Genital Mutilation In America, it is natural for a parent to choose to have their son circumcised. Before, it was not permissible. Unfortunately, in areas like Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia, it is unacceptable for a mother or grandmother to have their daughter circumcised, also known as female genital mutilation. The clitoris or other genital parts are cut out with a small blade or a piece of glass, and then it is sewn together. Due to the fact that it is considered inhumane or an act of force. People feel as if the rights of these little girls are being violated, thus for making it illegal in the......

Words: 688 - Pages: 3

Female Circumcism in Africa

... Female Circumcision in Africa Amber Triplett June 23, 2015 Diversity: Dr. Saleem Introduction There are an estimated 130 million girls and women alive today whose human rights have been violated by female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). This harmful practice not only affects girls and women in Africa and the Middle East, where it is traditionally carried out, but also touches the lives of girls and women living in migrant communities in industrialized countries. Although collaborative advocacy has worked over recent decades has generated widespread commitment to end this practice, success in eliminating FGM/C has been limited, with some significant expectations. This harmful practice is a deeply entrenched social convention: when it is practiced, girls and their families acquire social status and respect. Failure to perform FGM/C brings shame and exclusion. Understanding how and why FGM/C persists is crucial for developing strategies that are most likely to lead to the abandonment of the practice. FGM/C affects far more women than previously thought. Recent analysis reveals that some three million girls and women are cut each year on the African continent (Sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan) (Yoder, 2004). What is female circumcision? Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) includes a range of practices involving the complete or partial removal or alteration of the external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. The procedure may involve the use of unsterilized...

Words: 1717 - Pages: 7

Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

...ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The female reproductive system consists of external and internal structures. Other anatomic structures that affect the female re- productive system include the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of the endocrine system. 
External Genitalia 
The external genitalia (the vulva) include two thick folds of tissue called the labia majora and two smaller lips of delicate tissue called the labia minora, which lie within the labia majora. The upper por- tions of the labia minora unite, forming a partial covering for the clitoris, a highly sensitive organ composed of erectile tissue. Be- tween the labia minora, below and posterior to the clitoris, is the urinary meatus. This is the external opening of the female urethra and is about 3 cm (1.5 inches) long. Below this orifice is a larger opening, the vaginal orifice or introitus . On each side of the vaginal orifice is a vestibular (Bartholin’s) gland, a bean-sized structure that empties its mucous secretion through a small duct. The opening of the duct lies within the labia minora, external to the hymen. The area between the vagina and rectum is called the perineum. Internal Reproductive Structures The internal structures consist of the vagina, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian or uterine tubes VAGINA The vagina, a canal lined with mucous membrane, is 7.5 to 10 cm (3 to 4 inches) long and extends upward and backward from the vulva to the cervix. Anterior to it are the......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Immorality of Female Circumcision

...religious and ethical views that come with it. Female circumcision is the practice of removing a female’s external genitalia—most notably, the clitoris and labia. This practice is common in Africa and the Middle East; in contrast, it is frowned upon in the Western hemisphere and even illegal in the UK. Female circumcision is performed on young, helpless girls who have no say in whether they want the procedure performed or not—their parents and community decide for them. In addition, the procedure is performed by a non-certified practitioner who “uses a small knife or razor blade but no anesthesia” (Ashford). Female mutilation is morally wrong and unethical due to the fact that it is an unnecessary procedure that carries many medical risks and serious infections without any medical benefits, and because the girls who are circumcised are not given a choice whether they want to be circumcised or not. There are many stakeholders involved in the practice of female circumcision—not just the girl. In addition to the girl who is being mutilated, other individuals include her family and the “practitioner” who performs the circumcision on her. The Somalian government is also a stakeholder because they choose to condone the practice. Systemic stakeholders include the Westerners (Americans and Europeans), activist groups, other Somalians, and lenders. Lenders also in the wrong, if they choose to help fund and contribute to the practice of female circumcision. Even though they......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3


...Female Rulers Erin B HUM111 November 29, 2015 History is full of powerful women who ruled over lands and won wars to protect their kingdom just the same as the powerful men in history often times better than the men. Some female rulers we know from history such as Hatshepsut who ruled over Egypt long before Cleopatra, Queen Victoria of Great Brittan, Queen Elizabeth II queen of England today and the list could go on and on. However, the two female rulers that we are going compare are Wu Zetian of china who was born in 624 A.D. and Pharaoh Cleopatra of Egypt who was born 69B.C. both was rulers of their time until their deaths. These two female rulers came from very different backgrounds but ultimately ended up on the same path to become strong rulers of their time who didn’t let nothing or no one get in their way of them keeping their kingdoms and the power that comes with it. Wu Zetian was born in 624 A.D. in Wenshui county, Shanxi Province and was the only female ruler to sit on the imperial throne. She ruled the self-proclaimed Zhou Dynasty which later became known as the Tang Dynasty from 690-705 until her death at 80 years old in 705A.D.Wu’s father Wu Shihuo was one of the meritorious chancellors of the Tang Dynasty he gave her an education by teaching her himself. Both Wu Zetian and Cleopatra was very smart starting when they was young women. Cleopatra Spoke 6 different languages Hebrew, Arabic, Latin, Eygptian, Ethiopian and Greek. Cleopatra also studied Arts,...

Words: 1532 - Pages: 7

Female Genital Mutilation

...Female Gentile Mutilation (FGM) Female Gentile Mutilation (FGM) is a practice or tradition that involves partially or completely removing the external genitalia of girls and young women for nonmedical reasons. It is illegal in many countries but first started taking place and is still currently in practice in some African countries as well as within the Middle East. This act affects young girls between infancy and age 15, the procedure is a problem because it offers absolutely no health benefits for girls and women. The earliest record of FGM was made by Strabo, the Greek geographer and history specialist who reported a circumcision on young Egyptian girls in 25BC. Then again, it is trusted that FGM was happening a few centuries before this, and was spread by dominant tribes and civilizations as a result of tribal, ethnic, and cultural allegiances. In some countries, FGM is a rite of passage, which signifies a young lady's move to womanhood and her status to wed. FGM in many communities is believed to reduce a woman's desire to have sex and is also supposed to help her oppose sexual acts. At the point when a vaginal opening is covered, the fear of it opening and the fear of it being discovered is what scares young girls away from committing sexual acts. There is also a belief in some cases that a woman's genitalia is ugly or unclean. Aside from the pain and distress involved in the procedure at the time, there can also be long-term health consequences involving infertility...

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Female Genital Mutilation

...Female genital mutilation (FGM) WHAT is FGM? Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Procedures Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types. 1. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris). 2. Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are "the lips" that surround the vagina). 3. Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris. 4. Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area. WHO Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15, and occasionally on adult women. In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually. Between 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are living with the consequences of FGM. In Africa, about 92 million girls age 10 years and above are estimated to have undergone......

Words: 1197 - Pages: 5

Female Genital Cutting

...Fatima Said, of Americas Top Model, defiantly put female genital cutting in the minds of Americans and people around the world. She opened up a topic that many people had no idea about, and now are very interested in knowing more about. This essay will give a brief history of Somalia (Fatima’s home country), and then it will go into female genital cutting in Somalia. Somalia is a country in eastern Africa. The countries of Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya surround it. Somalis are thought to have been decedents from Africans and Arab people. The main languages in Somalia are Arabic, Italian and English. Islam is practiced through out the region. The majorities of Somalis are livestock herders and cultivate the land that they have. (www.cia.gov). Somalia became independent and its own country in 1960, when it got independence from England and Italy. Somalia has not had a stable government between 1991 and 2000. However, during 2000 a parliamentary government was formed but later on expired in 2003. In 2004, a new parliament was organized and a president was elected- Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed. Since 1991, Somalia has been overwhelmed with chaos and anarchy. Somalia had gone through a difficult time in 1992 when a drought happened in Africa and was combined with a civil war. Somalia went through an intense famine that killed approximately 300,000 people. (www.cia.gov). There were many efforts done by the United Stated and the United Nations to help Somalia get through the drought......

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7