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History of Ireland
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History of Ireland
Wenzel Hollar's historical map of Ireland
This article is part of a series
Chronology
Prehistory
Protohistory
400–800
800–1169
1169–1536
1536–1691
1691–1801
1801–1923
Timeline of Irish history
Peoples and polities
Gaelic Ireland
Lordship of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Republic of Ireland · Northern Ireland
Topics
Battles · Clans · Kingdoms · States
Gaelic monarchs · British monarchs
Economic history · History of the Irish language
Ireland Portal v · d · e

The first known settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from continental Europe, probably via a land bridge.[1] Few archaeological traces remain of this group, but their descendants and later Neolithic arrivals, particularly from the Iberian Peninsula, were responsible for major Neolithic sites such as Newgrange.[2][3] On the arrival of Saint Patrick and other Christian missionaries in the early to mid-5th century AD, Christianity began to subsume the indigenous Celtic religion, a process that was completed by the year 600.

From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions brought havoc upon the monastic culture and on the island's various regional dynasties, yet both of these institutions proved strong enough to survive and assimilate the invaders. The coming of Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed Strongbow, in 1169 marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct Norman and, later, English involvement in Ireland. In 1185, Prince John Lackland was created Lord Of Ireland Ireland by Pope Alexander III. The Crown did not begin an attempt to assert full control of the island until after the Henrician schism with Rome, and subsequent Reformation,…...

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