How Can Organizations Minimize Counterproductive Work and Deviant Behaviour

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Onyemali
Words 10089
Pages 41
Journal of Organizational Behavior J. Organiz. Behav. 30, 525–542 (2009) Published online 5 October 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/job.563

Getting even with one’s supervisor and one’s organization: relationships among types of injustice, desires for revenge, and counterproductive work behaviors
DAVID A. JONES*
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, U.S.A.

Summary

I tested hypotheses derived from the agent–system model of justice specifying that, among the different types of justice, interpersonal and informational justice explain the most unique variance in counterproductive work behavior (CWB) directed toward one’s supervisor, and procedural justice explains the most unique variance in CWB directed toward one’s organization. I also tested whether individuals’ desires for revenge against one’s supervisor and one’s organization mediate certain justice–CWB relationships. Results (N ¼ 424) provided considerable support for the study hypotheses, showing that employees tend to direct their CWB toward the source of perceived mistreatment, and that desires for revenge explain part, but not all, of the relationships between some types of injustice and CWB. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Introduction
It has been estimated that up to 75 per cent of employees engage in behaviors such as theft, sabotage, unexcused absenteeism, and vandalism (Harper, 1990; McGurn, 1988), and such behavior is costly. Employee theft, for example, costs the US retail industry $15 billion annually (Hollinger & Davis, 2001). Other more subtle kinds of ‘‘misbehavior’’ are also likely to have economic and psychological costs to both organizations and their members. For instance, job performance and cooperation among coworkers likely suffer when employees purposely waste time…...

Similar Documents

Organization Behaviour

...Organizational Behaviour to practicing managers? Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of human behavior in organizational settings, how human behavior interacts with the organization, and the organization itself. All three of these areas are ultimately connected and necessary for a comprehensive understanding of organizational behavior in the workplace. Learning about organizational behavior in today’s business environment could help managers build up a better work related understanding of themselves and their subsidiary. With this knowledge managers can achieve a successful career. Since a manager needs to get his job done by others who are employees, to have an organizational behavior skill that eventually become a valuable talent.  But because the organization influences and is influenced by the individual, it is hard to completely understand the individual’s behaviour without knowing something about the organization. As the environment of business is always changing, the role of the managers has become more sensitive. In order to know how to handle a new workforce, and deal with the complication of the new environment, the management staff therefore needs to develop and have an understanding of their information about attitude and behavior of individuals, and groups in organization. Although the importance of organizational behavior may be clear, it still should be emphasized. Organizational behavior can greatly clarify the factors that affect how managers......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Explain How Managers Can Use Motivation Theories to Influence the Behaviour of People in Organizations.

...Contemporary Theories of Motivation Introduction Understanding people’s perceptions, attitudes, motivations and behaviours is extremely important for achieving both managerial and organisational effectiveness. To get the very best out of people in work settings, managers constantly need knowledge about the behaviour of individuals and groups in organisations; they also need to be aware of the organisational and environmental variables that can potentially affect human behaviour. They need to understand, anticipate, modify and improve behaviours that are organizationally meaningful and relevant. The contribution of people, through their motivation and commitment, and dedicated behaviour towards the goals and objectives of the organisation, remain the single most important factor in making organisations better and more effective. Some people like their jobs and work harder as well as smarter. They are also very proud of the organizations for which they work. Other people simply dislike their jobs and would do anything just to avoid working. They would also prefer, if given the choice, to leave the organization. Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.   This need is the internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.   Motivation is also the process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a......

Words: 480 - Pages: 2

Organization and Behaviour

...ORGANIZATION & BEHAVIOUR TESCO Organization & Behaviour TESCO Organization & Behaviour Task 1 1.1 Compare and contrast three different organizational structures and cultures. The organizational culture Culture is the way we think, feel and act in a society. Companies act not only according to their identity but also their culture and internal structure. That is, as a person, the "personality" of the company (Way of being and behaving) depends on the interaction between their structures and identity culture. Organizational culture is the way of thinking, feeling and doing shared members of the company. Culture is a good or intangible capital, consisting of shared values, which, to the extent that generates motivation, collaboration and commitment, will have a greater value for the company. It is a system of assumptions and shared meanings, such as identity, distinguishes the organization from any another. Culture not formally indicates how to do things in the company and what is their importance (Wilson, 1989, P. 303-319). It is a social construction based on customs, learning, experiences and traditions. This culture may or may not further the objectives of the company. Culture becomes visible and / or strengthened through different aspects, such as: Identification The degree of commitment of staff to the company as a whole, and not just with your type of work or specific field performance. Group organization The extent...

Words: 3852 - Pages: 16

“How Can Diverse Workforce Affect the Organization”

...employees and managers. To reap the benefits of workplace diversity, employees and managers must understand the challenges and know how to effectively deal with them. Diversity is commonly interpreted in relation to ethnicity, gender and culture. Diversity also captures the differences and similarities between individuals and group, encompassing race, ethnicity, gender, culture, age, sexual orientation, religion, language, education, family status, physical and mental ability. These demographic variables are related to other important diversity characteristics such as values, attitudes, interaction styles, physical and cognitive abilities and non-work commitments. The impact of diversity is both positive and negative. The research questions was: How can diverse workforce affect the organization? Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction 4 Background of the Study 4 Statement of the Problem 4 Purpose of the Study 5 Research Questions 6 Chapter 2. Literature Review 6 Chapter 3. Methodology 12 Data Analysis 12 Final Results 14 References 15 CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND Today, globalization has become increasingly important and common for many organizations as globalization is a way to expand an organization and targeting a more open market. Many organizations have successfully crossed the bridge of globalization and became popular brand, such as McDonald’s, Nike and Toyota just......

Words: 3487 - Pages: 14

To What Extent Can Organisations Minimise Counterproductive or Deviant Behaviour?

...extent can organisations minimise harmful or unnatural behaviour A growing body of evidence suggests that when employees feel below the belt treated, they can engage in organizational retaliation define as the tendency to make the wrongdoer pay laid off employees can be motivated to engage in retaliation as a way to restore the balance of arbiter, bestow a sense of resolution to the event and help them sens with the strong negative emotions that are typically fellowshipd in reaction to unfairness perceptions in a layoff pg 1 skarlaci Organizational justice or fairness perceptions take a leak been shown to influence the display of harmful work behaviors. Distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice have all been shown to include both harmful work behaviors aimed at individuals, such as political digression and personal encroachment; and counterproductive work behaviors aimed at the organization, such as end product slowdown and property deviance Personality is a predictor of an employees leaning toward counterproductive work behaviors. With regard to the Big Five, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience all predict counterproductive behaviors. When an employee is low in conscientiousness, counterproductive work behaviors related to the organization are more potential to occur.[60][61] Employees who are low in agreeableness will confront counterproductive work behaviors related to interpersonal deviant......

Words: 297 - Pages: 2

Organization and Behaviour

...3.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………P 1 3.1 Impact of Different leadership styles on motivation………………………….P 2 3.2 Application of motivational theory within the workplace…………………….P 3.3 Usefulness of motivation theory for Managers using real organisation………P 4.1 Nature of groups and group behaviour……………………………………….P 4.2 Factors which promote or reduce the development of effective teamwork….P 4.3 Impact of technology on team functioning…………………………………..P 4.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………P 4.5 References……………………………………………………………………P Task 3 3.0: Introduction Leadership has a direct cause and effect relationship upon organisation and their success. Leaders determine values, culture, change tolerance and employees motivation. Effective leaders create management systems that enable their employees to produce quality products and services. In today’s changing global marketplace, leaders must be able to assess situation accurately and respond quickly. To choose the right leadership style in specific situation, can help a leader to manage the changes in the organisation and influence those around them. An organisation can use from four leadership style to managed those changes. 3.1: Impact of Different leadership styles on motivation. In a business word, there are different ways to lead a company, but also every leader has his own style for leading. The most basic leadership styles include: autocratic,......

Words: 3761 - Pages: 16

Explain How Managers Can Use Motivation Theories to Influence the Behaviour of People in Organizations.

...[pic] [pic] [pic][pic] [pic] Explain how managers can use motivation theories to influence the behaviour of people in organizations. [pic] Table of Content Page Introduction 4 The meaning of motivation 6 Theories of motivation The Need or Content Theories of motivation Abraham Harold Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 8 Douglas Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 12 Frederick Herzberg’s Motivator Hygiene Theory 15 David McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory 17 The Process or Cognitive Theories of Motivation Victor H. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (The VIE Theory) 20 The Reinforcement Theory 23 Conclusion 26 Bibliography 28 Introduction Understanding people’s perceptions, attitudes, motivations and behaviours is extremely important for achieving both managerial and organisational effectiveness. To get the very best out of people in work settings, managers constantly need knowledge about the behaviour of individuals and groups in organisations; they also need to be aware of the organisational and environmental variables that can potentially affect human behaviour. They need to understand, anticipate, modify and improve behaviours that are organizationally meaningful and relevant. The contribution of people, through their motivation and commitment, and dedicated behaviour towards the goals and objectives of the organisation, remain......

Words: 6645 - Pages: 27

Organization Behaviour

...Overcoming Organizational Problem in a Multinational Company Introduction: Organizations achieve their goals by creating, communicating and operating an organizational behavior system. These systems exist in every organization, but sometimes in varying forms. They have a greater chance of being successful, though, if they have been consciously created and regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. The primary purposes of organizational behavior systems are to identify and then help manipulate the major human and organizational variables that affect the results organizations are trying to achieve. For some of these variables, managers can exert some control over them. The outcomes, or and results, are typically measured in various forms of three basic criteria: performance (e.g. quantity and quality of products and services; level of customer services), employee satisfaction (often exhibited through lower absenteeism, tardiness, or turnover), or Personal growth and development (the acquisition of lifelong knowledge and skills leading to continued employability. A number of critical changes and challenges faced by managers today. Let’s compare today’s work environment with that of ten years ago. Prepare a list of six to eight items, and include a rationale for your choices. There are numerous items that you might have identified from your own work experience and your knowledge of organizational issues. Let’s review some......

Words: 3517 - Pages: 15

Organization Behaviour

...multidisciplinary field of stduy that investigate show indidividuals behave within formal organizations. OB AS AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FIELD (Campo) * Psychology: individuals, motivation, personality, attitudes, learning, goals, expectation, perceptions, cognition. * Sociology: groups, status, hierarchy, influence, trust, reciprocity, social identity, social networks. * Economics: perfromance, efficency, effectiveness, incentives, monitoring, coordination. * Political science: power, governance, negotation, politics. INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Managers achieve results by working with and through others. The abilitiy to undestand, predicit and control individual behaviour in the absence of direct monitoring is one of the most important- but also difficult managerial skill to master. FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS A formal organization is a social system with specific goals and usually consisting of several interrelated groups of subunits. Formal organizations are governed by clearly stated and enforced norms that typically survive the churning (mescolare) of organizational members. PURPOSE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The purpose of organizational behaviour is to inform the optimal design(progettare) of the organizational strcture and processes to promote improvement in the satisfaction and productivity of oganizational members while increasing the efficency and effectiveness of the organization as a whole ( nel suo complesso). SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY ......

Words: 9829 - Pages: 40

Organization Behaviour

...Hofstede’s 5D Model of Cultural Dimensions   Professor Hofstede's framework was designed to help understand how, on average, people from different nations view and solve basic  problems.    Dimension              Large vs. Small  Power Distance  Characteristics  The extent to which members of a society  accept that power in institutions and  organizations is distributed.    People in Large Power Distance societies  tend to accept a hierarchical order in which  everybody has a "place."    People in Small Power Distance societies  tend to strive for power equalization and  demand justification for inequalities.    Online Classroom Students in high power distance cultures  are taught to honor others because of the  positions they hold.    In schools, students are generally  taught to have a great deal of  respect for their teachers.  Students  may be less inclined to speak up to  ask questions for fear of appearing  challenging.    Students in low power distance cultures  may consider people on more equal  terms.     Students may be more likely to  question teachers and challenge  them if they do not understand  something.    Students in an individualistic society  may feel more at ease working  alone.    Students in a collectivist society may  feel more at ease working in groups.   US Score vs. World  Average    US: 40    World average: 55              Individualism vs.  Collectivism                 Masculinity vs.  Femininity  ......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

How Can Value and Adaptability Affect an Organization

...limitless challenges facing most organizations, companies are being forced to hone in on things that are paramount, foundational and fundamental to them. Both internal and external customers are no longer content with mediocrity. They are no longer appeased with organizations that lack the ability and understanding to implement change. Companies must now create environments that are suitable for the future and adaptable to humans. We are now in a world where large corporations are among the least trusted and shareholders are more concerned with value than ever before. The ideological aspects of businesses that foster control are the cause of organizations being less innovative, and less adaptive. Organizations are eliminating the gap between reality and what is considered rhetoric. Innovation is one of the only ways to achieve longevity and long-term value. In attempt to overcome these obstacles, organizations will have to completely reengineer their business process. The systems of management in today’s business focuses on measurable goals, results, capital gains and order. (Rud, 2011). Humans on the other hand are born curious to learn and naturally motivated with the expectation of change. The recalibration of priorities has become a perquisite for most organizations to remain successful. There is a high demand of diversification for products coupled with the increase number of turnover rates for employees (Agostinho, 2012). Organizations need to focus on the now and let......

Words: 2098 - Pages: 9

Counterproductive Behaviour

...To what extent can organizations minimize counterproductive or deviant behaviour?        By definition, counterproductive work behaviors are voluntary acts that are determined to an organization. They have important implications for the well-being of an organization. and deviance behaviors are acts based on intentions to cause damage, discomfort, or punishment to the organization or other individuals within the organization. Deviant behaviors can include smaller offenses like intentionally working slower or could be as drastic as sabotage of work. These estimated losses do not include losses from other sources, nor do they consider the fact that many losses attribute to a extent go undetected these can be also said as a silent killer , and  for a well developed organizations, in case of counterproductive or  deviant behavior the initial consequences will be brutal. Why does counterproductive or deviant behaviour occur in a organization ? In an organization most important people are the co-workers, they are the base of the company or the organization. If they no longer have trust from each other Then its not going to run smoothly. deviance will often occur when employees feel a psychological contract has been violated. A psychological contract is a set of beliefs or unstated agreement between the employee and the organization (or individuals within the organization) of their obligations to one another. A common psychological contract many employees possess is: If......

Words: 1874 - Pages: 8

Organization Behaviour

...INTRODUCTION According to Ikeda et al. (2005) the word CONFLICT can be said to be disagreement among members of a society. Conflict simply connotes a state of disequilibrium between two parties, groups, section or between the employers and the employees in an organisation. Conflict is an important concept that is central to understanding and appreciation of man’s exchange with reality of human action. It can be viewed as a philosophical concept denoting the clash of power against power in the striving of all things to become manifest or it can be described as the distinct category of social behaviour as two party trying to get something they both cannot have. (Rummel, 1976) Brewer (2002) Feelings of injustice or deprivation give rise to conflict. These feelings may have some real basis or it may be only because of some false or imaginary ideas. Some times false ego gives rise to conflict. Conflicts are also created or imposed upon by interested persons or groups for some ulterior motive to make some gain out of it. In a democratic country political conflicts will always be there and these are not discouraging if they do not result in violence or go against the interest of the people. In a multi-racial, multi-religious, multi-cultural country like India there is always a challenge on ethnic, communal or cultural issues creating conflicts. The contradiction between the privileged and deprived sections of the people, educated and illiterate people, people of higher caste......

Words: 1914 - Pages: 8

Deviant Work Place Behaviour

...research because of their impact on employees and organization. One of the important workplace issues that receive less attention among organizational scholars is workplace deviant behavior. The concept of workplace deviance in recent years has generated high interest among organizational researchers and practitioners because of its pervasiveness in organizations. Some forms of workplace deviance includes absenteeism, abusing sick day privileges, abusing drugs and alcohol, filing fake accident claims, sabotaging, breaking organizations’ rules, withholding effort, stealing, taking long breaks, working slowly, harassing other employees and hiding needed resources. This paper investigates the nature of deviant workplace behaviors and its impact on organizations. The purpose is to broaden the research in organizational studies by focusing not only on deviant behaviors that are negative, but on those that are positive as well. Furthermore, this article examines different types of both positive and negative deviant workplace behaviors, along with some of the reasons why managers/employees engage in such behaviors. Also, some of the reasons why organizations allow negative deviant behaviors to thrive, while discouraging positive deviant behaviors are investigated. Lastly, possible solutions to overcome problems arising from negative deviance in the workplace will be examined, along with how organizations can encourage positive deviant behaviors. ORGANISATIONAL......

Words: 5874 - Pages: 24

Explain How Managers Can Use Motivation Theories to Influence the Behaviour of People in Organizations.

...Explain How Managers Can Use Motivation Theories to Influence the Behaviour of People in Organizations. In: Business and Management Explain How Managers Can Use Motivation Theories to Influence the Behaviour of People in Organizations. [pic] ===================================================================================== [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic][pic] [pic] Explain how managers can use motivation theories to influence the behaviour of people in organizations. [pic] Table of Content Page Introduction 4 The meaning of motivation 6 Theories of motivation The Need or Content Theories of motivation Abraham Harold Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 8 Douglas Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 12 Frederick Herzberg’s Motivator Hygiene Theory 15 David McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory 17 The Process or Cognitive Theories of Motivation Victor H. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (The VIE Theory) 20 The Reinforcement Theory 23 Conclusion 26 Bibliography 28 Introduction Understanding people’s perceptions, attitudes, motivations and behaviours is extremely important for achieving both managerial and organisational effectiveness. To get the very best out of people in work settings, managers constantly need knowledge about the behaviour of individuals and groups in organisations; they also need to be aware of the organisational and environmental variables that can potentially......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2