Immunology

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Submitted By dragon241
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IMMUNOLOGY

INNATE (NONSPECIFIC) DEFENSES - mechanical and chemical

Skin + Mucous Membranes – Prevent/slow entry
1. Skin Closely-packed keratinized cells w/tight junctions + desmosomes; sloughing of outer layer
2. Mucous membranes - Line openings to the exterior (respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts)
Mucus = sticky entrapment
Tight junctions in epithelial tissue
3. Underlying connective tissue (dermis, lamina propria) Viscous to slow movement
4. Hair Protect from abrasion (scalp); filter air (nasal)
5. Acidity Skin – sebum; Stomach – HCl (pH 2); vaginal and urinary secretions
6. Lysozyme – Destroys cell walls of some bacteria Sweat, tears, saliva, nasal secretions 7. Other antimicrobials – defensins, dermacidin, IgA
8. Expel microorganisms Sweat, tears, urine flow, vaginal secretions, saliva Coughing, sneezing, vomiting, defecation Cilia of upper respiratory tract - propels mucus away from lungs

Internal Defenses – Prevent spread
1. Phagocytosis - Macrophages, Neutrophils, Microglial cells (CNS), Kupffer cells (liver) 2. Natural killer cells (in blood + lymph) Cell lysis of cells without proper self cell markers (tumor cells, virus-infected cells)
3. Antimicrobial proteins a. Interferon - Proteins made by viral-infected cells Virus - needs host cell machinery to replicate; takes over host to make more viruses Prevents virus from multiplying in other infected cells (Can also activate macrophages and NK cells) b. Antimicrobial Proteins: Complement - group of ~20 proteins and factors in plasma (usually inactive; activation sequence required)
Alternate pathway for activation: C3 spontaneous activation not inhibited - interacts with surface of pathogens (polysaccharides)
Defensive and supporting roles to cause destruction of pathogen:
Cell lysis, opsonization, inflammation
5.…...

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