In: Science

Submitted By dragon241
Words 409
Pages 2

INNATE (NONSPECIFIC) DEFENSES - mechanical and chemical

Skin + Mucous Membranes – Prevent/slow entry
1. Skin Closely-packed keratinized cells w/tight junctions + desmosomes; sloughing of outer layer
2. Mucous membranes - Line openings to the exterior (respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive tracts)
Mucus = sticky entrapment
Tight junctions in epithelial tissue
3. Underlying connective tissue (dermis, lamina propria) Viscous to slow movement
4. Hair Protect from abrasion (scalp); filter air (nasal)
5. Acidity Skin – sebum; Stomach – HCl (pH 2); vaginal and urinary secretions
6. Lysozyme – Destroys cell walls of some bacteria Sweat, tears, saliva, nasal secretions 7. Other antimicrobials – defensins, dermacidin, IgA
8. Expel microorganisms Sweat, tears, urine flow, vaginal secretions, saliva Coughing, sneezing, vomiting, defecation Cilia of upper respiratory tract - propels mucus away from lungs

Internal Defenses – Prevent spread
1. Phagocytosis - Macrophages, Neutrophils, Microglial cells (CNS), Kupffer cells (liver) 2. Natural killer cells (in blood + lymph) Cell lysis of cells without proper self cell markers (tumor cells, virus-infected cells)
3. Antimicrobial proteins a. Interferon - Proteins made by viral-infected cells Virus - needs host cell machinery to replicate; takes over host to make more viruses Prevents virus from multiplying in other infected cells (Can also activate macrophages and NK cells) b. Antimicrobial Proteins: Complement - group of ~20 proteins and factors in plasma (usually inactive; activation sequence required)
Alternate pathway for activation: C3 spontaneous activation not inhibited - interacts with surface of pathogens (polysaccharides)
Defensive and supporting roles to cause destruction of pathogen:
Cell lysis, opsonization, inflammation

Similar Documents


...reduce the amount pollen in the air • Try to dust proof the home • Keeping a clean home • Covering the nose and mouth if it is cold outside • Maintain a healthy weight Physicians that treat Asthma Asthma is generally cared for by general practioners, pediatricians, and internists. In cases where the Asthma is more severe allergists, immunologists, and pulmonologists have special training in the immune system and may be the better choice (Mayo Clinic, 2011). Doctors in Columbia, South Carolina that treat Asthma (Health grades, 2012) • David Joseph Amrol, MD – Allergy, Immunology, and internal medicine • Lisa S. Hutto, MD – Allergy, Immunology, and Internal medicine • Orville H. Dyce, MD – Allergy and Immunology • Michael J. Bykowsky, MD – Allergy, Immunology, and Pediatrics • David Perrick, MD – Allergy, Immunology, and Pediatrics • Lawrence S. Weiner, MD – Allergy, Immunology, and Pediatrics • Laura Bogan Herpel, MD – Pulmonology • Betty W. Joyce, MD – Pulmonology • Mark James Mason, MD – Internal medicine and Pulmonology • Jason B. Spiers, MD – Critical care medicine, Internal medicine, and Pulmonology Socioeconomic Profile Lisa Jackson is a 36 year old, African American woman. She is a divorced mother of three children aged 7, 11, and 13. Lisa is a certified medical assistant at a health clinic and she earns $34, 750 per year (All Health Care, 2012). She has been employed at the clinic for 9 years. Ms. Jackson graduated from high school......

Words: 2357 - Pages: 10

Human Igg Subclasses

...subclasses 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the human IgG group due to their frequency in myeloma protein and also their concentration in normal serum. IgG is the main immunoglobulin in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid and lymph. In healthy human body, presence of serum IgG is approximately 15% of the total protein besides enzymes, albumin and other globulins. Human IgG subclasses are glycoproteins. They composed of two light (2 x 25 kDa) and two heavy (2 x 50 kDa) chains that are linked together with disulphide bonds. Formation of loops by intra-chain disulphide bonds leads to compact domain-like structure of IgG immunoglobulin molecules. Schematic diagram of the four human IgG subclasses are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Diagram of four subclasses of human IgG[5]. The human IgG subclasses have two types of light chains, lambda (λ) and kappa (κ) chains. The ratio of κ to λ variation determines the species (human 2:1 and mice 20:1) which can sometimes be used as marker for immune abnormalities. As mentioned before, there are constant regions in an immunoglobulin molecule. These constant regions are included in placental passage, complement binding and binding to cell membrane. Both the difference of and λ ratio light chains and amino acid content of the heavy chain determines the characteristic of different human IgG subclasses. The hinge region of the molecule links the Fab arms to the Fc portion providing......

Words: 2425 - Pages: 10

Health Promotion

...diseases. This public health promotion and health awareness can be spread through several technological enhancements like Internet, newspaper, radio and especially health promotion self explanatory brochures According to American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (2007) Asthma is the number one leading cause of emergency room visit, missed school and work, disability, morbidity, and mortality rate in the United States. Approximately 34.1 million Americans diagnosed with asthma in their lifetime and 3,384 deaths associated to asthma annually. Asthma accounts for 13million missed school days in children and 10.1million missed work days in adults annually. Approximately 500,000 hospitalizations each year because of asthma and about $19.7 billion of both direct and indirect income lost annually. About 217,000emergency room visits and 10.5 million physician office visits are attributed to asthma. Statistics have also shown that approximately 70% of children with asthma have allergy and 40% of children who have asthmatic parents will development asthma and that the number of people with asthma will increase by more than 100 million by year 2025 (American Academy of Allergy asthma & Immunology, 2007).Because of the prevalence of this disease, many can relate to it. Because an average American reads at the seventh or eighth grade level according to an informatics review (2008) therefore to have a clear communication, the material have to......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3


...Edelmann-Okinda Director, DAAD Information Center Accra DAAD Programmes: • • DAAD Information Center, Accra—New Counselling format from 1st April, 2011 Call for Application— Scholarship for Courses with Relevance to Developing Countries 2012/13 Germany - Best Destination for International Students New Member—AGGN • • In this Issue: • • • • • New Leibniz-DAAD Research Fellowship Programme Gerda Henkel Foundation Fellowship Programme International Masters—Water Resources and Environmental Management. MSc. In Management—The Kühne Logistics University MSc. Molecular Bioengineering / MSc. Nano Biophysics / MSc. Regenerative Biology and Medicine— TU Dresden Pre-Study Course: University of Applied Sciences, Bremen DAAD Summer Academy in Immunology—Hannover Medical School Future Now Project-Deutsche Welle TestAS - Test for Academic Studies DAAD Information Center Accra — New Counselling Format from 1st April, 2011 The DAAD Information Center will introduce new office hours and a new counseling format from 1st April, 2011. This comprises a monthly Introductory Session on Study and Research Opportunities in Germany. Participation in this session is free of charge but mandatory prior to visiting our office for individual consultation. Participants will be issued a participatory note which they will have to present before the individual consultation. During the Introductory Session we will inform you on • International Degree Programs in Germany (Bachelors,......

Words: 2199 - Pages: 9


...Estimation of 300 million people worldwide has asthma. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * 250,000 deaths worldwide annually attributed to asthma. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * Roughly 34.1 million Americans diagnosed with asthma. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * 11% of asthma cases are attributed to workplace conditions. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * 70% of people who suffer from asthma have allergies. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * From 1980-1994, there is an 75% increase in the prevalence of asthma. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * Estimation that the number of asthma sufferers will increase to roughly 100 million people. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * Estimation of 500,000 case of hospitalization is due to asthma. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * Estimation that there is an 160% increase in rate of asthma diagnosis in children less than five or younger. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * 3,384 cases of death in the United State is attributed to asthma. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * Estimation of 10.1 cases of missed work days annually in the United States. (American academy of allergy- asthma & immunology) * 19.7 billion dollars is the estimated annual economic cost of asthma with......

Words: 2294 - Pages: 10


... INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY: Compare and Contrast the Biological Processes Underlying Innate and Adaptive Immunity By (name) Course: Instructor: University: City/State: Date Compare and Contrast the Biological Processes Underlying Innate and Adaptive Immunity In the biology Immunology field, immunity is defined as the balanced state of a living organism for instance, the human body having sufficient biological defenses to combat infection, illness, or other unwanted biological incursion, while having acceptable tolerance to avoid contamination and allergies (Sompayrac, 2012, p.5). The immune system is a group of cells, nerves, and molecules that defend the body from many pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants in the environment. These defenses against microorganisms have been alienated into two broad categories of reactions, which are responses of innate immunity and those of adaptive immunity. Consequently, innate and adaptive immunity can be perceived as two similarly significant aspects of the immune system. This paper aims to highlight and assess the differences concerning innate and adaptive immunity despite them serving a similar function in human immunology. Immunology has conventionally allocated the immune system into innate and adaptive mechanisms with dissimilar functional roles (Sompayrac, 2012, p. 6). The first comparison is placed in their definition of function where the innate immune system is comprised of cells and proteins that are constantly......

Words: 679 - Pages: 3

Historical Perspectives of the Diagnosis of Asthma in Children

...common chronic lung diseases in children, the incidence increased year by year in the world in recent years. Early diagnosis and standardized treatment prognosis is essential. GINA program is a global guide diagnosis and treatment of asthma, asthma prevention play an important role in guiding. However, the guide is more focused on adult asthma, but only has a limited elaboration of children asthma. The natural history children asthma, predisposing factors, age-specific pathophysiological changes and asthma phenotype also have its own characteristics, and very different from adults. Therefore, an urgent need for an international guidelines for children asthma. 2008, by the European Allergy, Clinical Immunology Society and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology (EAACI / AAAAI) organizations from 20 countries in 44 pediatric asthma specialists, pediatric clinicians to develop suitable for children of all ages asthma diagnosis and treatment guidelines, referred to as PRACTALL consensus report. The birth of the guidelines is of an important milestone significance to early diagnosis of children asthma, standardized treatment and management. 2. Analysis and Discussion: Physiological basis: Compared with the diagnosis of asthma of older children, the diagnosis of asthma of infants children has a significantly difficulty. It has been the consensus of the global industry. I think that the main reasons which are difficult to diagnose with the following......

Words: 1803 - Pages: 8

The Blaze

...microbiologist, you may isolate organism cultures and classify the types of organisms found in soil, water and living hosts. You might also observe how organisms interact with each other and with living plant and animal tissue, as well as analyze the relationship between organisms and disease. Some of your duties could include preparing technical reports and research papers detailing your findings and making recommendations based on your research. You might also supervise lab workers and technicians and perform lab experiments for government health departments and physicians. A microbiologist is a scientist who studies the properties of fungi, algae, bacteria and other microscopic organisms. Areas of specialization include virology, immunology or bioinformatics. The following chart provides an overview about this career. Degree Required Bachelor's degree Field of Study Microbiology, biochemistry or cell biology BS Biology is the course needed to take Microbiology. Microbiology Training For over 80 years we have been training the food industry and we pride ourselves on the quality and content of our training portfolio. We offer a range of microbiology training to the food and drinks industry from standard courses on HACCP (RSPH), shelf-life and auditing to food microbiology and tailored confidential training. In partnership with Skill gate we have developed an online microbiology course that covers eight basic modules, tutor assessment and a multiple choice......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Huntington's Disease

...characterized by involuntary movements, decline in cognition, inability to control muscle movement and decline in physical and mental condition. Huntington’s disease causes loss of cells in the brain which leads to problems with many other systems in the body. These problems lead to the decline in physical condition and eventual death for those diagnosed. There currently is no treatment for Huntington’s disease but focus is on providing a better quality of life for those diagnosed.   References Ellrichmann, G., Reick, C., Saft, C., & Linker, R. A. (2013). The Role of the Immune System in Huntington’s Disease. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2013. Ellrichmann, G., Reick, C., Saft, C., & Linker, R. A. (2013). The Role of the Immune System in Huntington’s Disease. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2013. Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (5th Ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and and Research. (2014). Huntington's disease. Retrieved from Pringsheim, T., Wiltshire, K., Day, L., Dykeman, J., Steeves, T., & Jette, N. (2012). The incidence and prevalence of Huntington's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Movement Disorders: Official Journal Of The Movement Disorder Society, 27(9), 1083-1091.......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Benefits of Immunotherapy from Advances in Immunology and Recombinant Dna Technology

...Benefits of Immunotherapy from advances in immunology and recombinant DNA technology. Immunotherapy is a form of medical treatment intended to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. This can be by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response. Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation immunotherapies, while those that reduce or suppress immune response are suppression immunotherapies. Active immunotherapy has been effective against agents that normally cause acute self-limiting infectious disease. However, a more effective immunotherapy for chronic infectious diseases or cancer requires the use of appropriate target antigens; the optimization of the interaction between the antigenic peptide, the antigen-presenting cells (APC) and the T cell; and the simultaneous blockage of the negative regulatory mechanisms that impede immunotherapeutic effect. Furthermore, passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies and receptor FC-fusion proteins has come of age and has shown great clinical success. Several monoclonal antibodies, including unmodified antibodies and antibodies armed with toxins or radionuclides, have been approved to prevent allograft rejection or to treat autoimmune diseases and cancer. Several others are in clinical trials. Preventive vaccines have been successful against infectious agents such as viruses, which cause self-limiting diseases that are......

Words: 3205 - Pages: 13


...According to "American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology" (2015), “The number of people with asthma continues to grow. One in 12 people (about 25 million, or 8% of the U.S. population) had asthma in 2009, compared with 1 in 14 (about 20 million, or 7%) in 2001.” Another scary eye opener is that more than half 53% to be exact of people with asthma had an attack in 2008. Out of that 53 percent of people more children suffered from asthma attacks then adults. In 2007 a whopping 185 children and 3,262 adults died from asthma ("American Academy Of Allergy Asthma And Immunology", 2015). Asthma can be a very scary chronic diseases. Asthma is a chronic lung disease that happens to be long-term this disease inflames and narrows the airway. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing which could sound like a person is trying to whistling when they are breathing. They also suffer from recurring chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. A person with asthma coughing usually happens in the morning when they first wake up or at night when they getting ready for bed ("National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute", 2016). To really understand how asthma effect a person you have go to understand how the human airway works. You may not pay attention to the length of what our body does to help us breath. We breathe twelve to twenty times per minute day after day due to our wonderful respiratory systems. Our lungs expand and contract supplying our body with oxygen and helps......

Words: 893 - Pages: 4


...Immunology of Pediatric (HIV) Unit 1 Assignment 1 (GE257) Ashley Pernell September 21, 2015 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus where the body has a hard time fighting off infections and disease. If left untreated it can lead to AIDS. The human body cannot get rid of HIV. That means that once you have HIV, you have it for life. Most children who are born to mothers who have HIV do not become infected with this virus. In the case that they do become infected, their response to treatment varies depending upon the timing and potentially the route of their infection. (Tobin & Aldrovandi, 2013) The majority of pediatric HIV infection occurs via mother-to-child transmission at three points: in utero, intrapartum, or through breast milk. Most children born to women with high levels of HIV and low numbers of CD4+ T-cells do not become infected. Even when primary HIV infection occurs during pregnancy, 80% of children escape infection. (Tobin & Aldrovandi, 2013) Utero transmission is mother to baby transmission of HIV during pregnancy. This transmission may occur if there is damage to the placenta and blood from the mother contact the fetus. During the third trimester of pregnancy, maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are transplacentally transferred. The antibodies are associated with infant safeguard against a variety of microbes. Most utero transmission infections occur a few weeks before the delivery. The HIV in these infants is different from......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Roitts Essential Immunology

...Potenciales de membrana Las células nerviosas y musculares tienen la propiedad de ser células excitables, o sea que pueden: Generar potenciales eléctricos y en muchos casos Transmitirlos como señales a lo largo de sus membranas. ¿Cómo se genera un potencial de membrana? Los potenciales de membrana básicamente se generan con la participación de 2 iones principales: • Na+ • K+ Estos iones difunden a través de la MEMBRANA CELULAR SEMIPERMEABLE de estas células (nerviosas y musculares), siguiendo las reglas de la difusión: CARGA ELÉCTRICA: Los iones de cargas opuestas se atraen y los de carga similares se repelen. CONCENTRACIÓN: Las partículas separadas por una membrana permeable difunden a través de la membrana siguiendo su gradiente de concentración, siempre tendiendo a igualar la concentración a ambos lado de la membrana. O sea que: [pic] El Sodio tiene carga positiva y se encuentra en mayor concentración fuera de las células, por lo tanto ambas fuerzas crean una tendencia al sodio de entrar en las células. El Potasio tiene carga positiva, por lo que tiende a entrar hacia la célula (con carga negativa), sin embargo su gradiente de concentración es mayor dentro de las células por lo tanto también tiene una tendencia a salir. Sin embargo al sumar las fuerzas que tienden a hacer entrar estos iones y hacerlos salir obtenemos que (OJO, acá solo hablamos......

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7

Debate on the Ethics of Aids

...Introduction (Jessica and Chrystal) A. Why this topic is important? i. AIDS is a pandemic ii. B. Implications i. AIDS vaccine could potentially save billions of lives ii. . C. Objectives of the assignment. i. Identify a health care ethical issue ii. Present facts in an outline format. iii. Describe the pros and cons of the issue including an analysis. iv. Follow APA 6th formatting. II. Literature Review A. Review of the key articles on this topic (5 per team member). i. HIV/AIDS- Ethical/Legal Issues (Arora & Arora, 2009). This article … ii. AIDS Vaccines and Reproductive Immunology (Bourinbaiar, Jirathitikal, Silin, Nian-Qing & Abulafia-Lapid, 2007). This article… iii. Correlates of negative intent to receive an AIDS vaccine: an exploratory study (Crosby, Holtgrave, Bryant, & Frew, 2004). iv. AIDS Care (AIDS CARE), Dhalla S; Nelson KE; Singer J; Poole G. (2009). This article describe how developing an HIV vaccines may contribute to participants better follow-ups and may improve the patient’s knowledge and education regarding HIV/AIDS. v. Development of an AIDS vaccine: perspective from the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative. British Medical Journal. This Article mentioned that HIV continues to be the worst infectious disease that is affecting humanity. Other......

Words: 1963 - Pages: 8

Cancer Immunology

...Cancer: Cancer can be defining as disease condition in which cell divide and proliferate uncontrollably bypassing the normal rules of cell division. It is characterized by a progression of changes on cellular and genetic level that ultimately reprogram a cell to undergo uncontrolled cell division, thus forming a malignant mass. Carcinogenesis: Cancers consist of single clones or several clones of cells that are capable of partially (benign tumor) or fully (malignant cancer) independent growth in the host. The essence of carcinogenesis is the activation (deregulation) of genes that regulate cell growth via bypassing the host’s regulatory circuits. Multiple genes must be deregulated for the development of fully malignant tumors What causes cancer? Physical, chemical and biological agents may cause cancer. Cancer arises from the mutation of a normal gene. Mutated genes that cause cancer are called oncogenes. Carcinogens: Radiations: Ultraviolet light, X-rays, radioactive elements induce DNA damage and chromosome brakes. Chemicals: smoke and tar, countless chemicals that damage DNA (mutagens Oncogenic viruses: insert DNA or cDNA copies of viral (v) oncogens into the genome of host target cells. Hereditary: certain oncogenes are inheritable. Classification of cancer Benign tumor: do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd out surrounding cells e.g. brain tumour, warts. Malignant tumours: can spread from the original site and......

Words: 2717 - Pages: 11