In: Science

Submitted By clee555294
Words 5024
Pages 21


Identification and Treatment of Bisphosphonate-Associated Actinomycotic Osteonecrosis of the Jaws
Cameron Y. S. Lee, DMD, MD, PHD,* Francis D. Pien, MD, MPH,† and Jon B. Suzuki, DDS, PHD, MBA‡

isphosphonates (BPs) are a pharmacologic class of synthetic analogs of inorganic pyrophosphate that has an affinity for calcium.1 They are used in the treatment of various malignant and benign metabolic conditions, such as hypercalcemia of malignancy; Paget’s disease of bone; multiple myeloma; and metastases from distant sites such as breast, thyroid, prostate glands, and lung. The oral form of BPs is indicated in the management of osteoporosis, fibrous dysplasia, and most recently, osteogenesis imperfecta in the pediatric population.2,3 Currently, there are 5 bisphosphonates in clinical use: alendronate (Fosamax; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ), risedronate (Actonel; Proctor & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH), ibandronate (Boniva; Roche Pharmaceuticals, Nutley, NY), zoledronate (Zometa; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ), and pamidronate (Aredia; Novartis Pharmaceuticals). All 5 medications differ in their binding affinity to bone, potency, and duration.2–5


Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a condition characterized by necrotic exposed bone in the jaws of patients receiving intravenous or oral bisphosphonate therapy. A review of the medical and dental literature reveals that the pathoetiology of ONJ remains unknown and there is no established link that bisphosphonates are the primary cause of this bone pathology. However, there

is clinical evidence that Actinomyces may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-associated ONJ. Identification and a prolonged course of oral antimicrobial therapy may lead to complete resolution of this actinomycotic osteonecrosis. (Implant Dent…...

Similar Documents

Breast Implants

...Advantages of Breast Implants Women get breast implants for a number of reasons, although research has shown that the number one reason is to improve their quality of life. It is a given fact that in today’s world, appearance matters, and women are going the extra mile to look better even if it involves surgery. The size of a woman’s breasts contribute significantly to her overall look, so if they are not happy with this aspect of their body it can result in low self esteem. This is one of the reasons women get breast implants and to reestablish their confidence and overall well being.   There are also other more personal reasons why women get breast implants. Some would simply like to achieve a more proportional look in their body if their breasts are too small, and implants are the answer. Implants are also useful when it comes to reshaping breasts to give it a more natural look, especially if it has been slightly distorted due to pregnancy and breast feeding.   Today, breast implant surgery is highly developed due to decades of research, science, and medicine. Procedures are much more personal and individual, in order to give women a highly customized look that suits their own unique anatomy and needs. There are several benefits to getting breast implants today: Breast Implant Center of Hawaii The aesthetic benefits of breast implants are highly valuable to women. Breast implants can greatly enhance the shape of a woman’s figure by giving her fuller breasts and......

Words: 2258 - Pages: 10

Cybernetic Implants

...Cybernetic Implants One of the things that we will probably being seeing in the future is the development of cybernetic implants. There are a few pros and cons to the development of cybernetic implants. Some of the pros could be increased life span do to less illness, increased economy due to the sales of implants, increased productivity due to increased physical strength, increased security due to most everything financial would be implanted into you so less identity theft, and increased technology due to increased portions of the brain being unlocked from neural enhancements. Some of the cons could be issues such as the religious views on such things. Some religions believe that the use of cybernetic implants for financial transactions to be a form of the mark of the beast and would have no part in such implants. This issue alone could start major riots and divisions in certain states. Another issue could result from the physical enhancement side. There will probably be an increase in crimes such as grand theft auto due to people having increased strength and in essence feeling almost godlike. They will probably be more likely to ignore the laws and think that they are above them. This will also cause those who cannot afford such implants to be at increased risk. The neural enhancements could also cause people to be able to outthink many security systems and be able to develop more homemade devices for crime. There is a lot consider when dealing with cybernetic......

Words: 848 - Pages: 4

Preprosthetic and Implant Surgery

...Preprosthetic and Implant Surgery espite dentistry's improved ability to maintain dentition, many individual continue to require replacement of some or all of their teeth. Surgical improvement of the denture-bearing area and surrounding tissue (preprosthetic surgery) offers an exciting and demanding challenge to the dental practice. Many minor modifications of the alveolar ridge and vestibular areas can greatly improve denture stability and retention. In some cases, patients have severe bone changes or soft tissue abnormalities that require extensive surgical preparation before the prosthetic appliance can be properly constructed and worn. Procedures that improve prosthesis retention and stability are discussed and illustrated in Chapter 13. One of the most exciting frontiers in dentistry is implantology. Proper bony and soft tissue reconstruction followed by placement of implants and subsequent prosthetic reconstruction can provide patients with a more natural and efficient substitution for their lost dentition. Depending on the circumstances, several types of implant systems may be used. Chapter 14 discusses the various types of implant systems currently in use and their advantages, disadvantages, and indications for use. 247 Preprosthetic Surgery Mark W. Ochs and Myron R. Tucker CHAPTER OUTLINE OBJECTIVES OF PREPROSTHETIC SURGERY OF PATIENT EVALUATION AND TREATMENT PLANNING Evaluation of Supporting Bony Tissue Evaluation of Supporting Soft Tissue Treatment...

Words: 17845 - Pages: 72

Breast Implants

...Breast Implants In 1997, the United States had 101,176 people that went through surgery for breast implants and in 2000 that number more than doubled to 203,310; just in those 3 years. The first surgery that was ever performed was in the late nineteenth century; breast implant devices have been used to surgically enhance the size, adjust the shape and enrich the feel of a woman’s breasts. In 1889, the first breast implant surgery was done by Dr. Robert Gersuny, who experimented with paraffin injections, but ended with catastrophic results. In 1930, silicone, a synthetic plastic, was invented for use as a breast implant filler. In 1940’s, Japanese prostitutes had their breasts injected with substances such as paraffin, sponges and non-medical grade silicone to enlarge their breasts, believing that American men favored large breasts sizes. Silicone is a metal-like substance that’s found in nature when it is combined with oxygen which creates silica. Ordinarily beach on the sand and crystals are the real silica. For the silica to turn into silicone it will have to combined with carbon, which will form silicon. It is put though further process, which then becomes polymerized; this process combines the more complex molecules. That’s the method on how they make silicone. There are three ways in which silicone can be processed: A fluid, a gel, and a solid rubber which is known as elastomer. Silicone can even be found in regular everyday items like chewing gum, cleansers, suntan......

Words: 1528 - Pages: 7

Brain Implants

...Kevin Wang Dr. Pearce Rhetoric 102 19 March 2010 The Brain Implant Dilemma In 2002, author M.T. Anderson wrote a novel called “Feed”, with a story envisioning a future where all human beings have implanted computer chips in their brains (Anderson 2002). It would be easy to dismiss such a bold concept as a product of fiction. However, many films and books with plots set in the future have successfully predicted the invention of many current technologies that simply did not exist at the time, including flat-screen TVs (Back to the Future II), unmanned aircraft (The Terminator), and video chatting (2001: A Space Odyssey). Suffice it to say, brain implants, as these embedded computer chips are called, are projected to become a reality. The past few years have already seen the integration of computer chip and organism, with millions of cats and dogs across the world injected with identifying microchip implants underneath their skin. Brain implants have also benefitted the medical field enormously, having in some cases cured blindness (Graham-Rowe 2007) and Parkinson’s disease (Harding 2009). However, developments indicate that brain implants for personal consumer use may see the light of day. IBM, the world’s largest chipmaker, recently announced their intent to research and develop brain implants capable of controlling gadgets via brain waves by 2020 (Hsu 2009). Toyota has already successfully demoed a wheelchair that can be controlled by its rider through brain......

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10

Will the General Public Ever Accept a Microchip Implant?

...Abstract This paper explores controversial issues that plague the use of microchip implants and how deeply rooted the issues are in many organizations today. The implications and concerns, along with the advantages, have been pondered by governments, religious groups, law enforcement agencies, the financial industry, and the medical field. We now have the technology to implant a microchip in very human on the planet. Will we, as a nation or a global community, ever support the use of the microchip implant in every man, woman and child around the world? The technology is available and the need is abundant. I believe our government will implement a mandate of microchip implants within the next twenty years. Will the General Public Ever Accept a Microchip implant? We Have the Technology: Before the turn of the century, the idea of using microchips to carry and transmit large amount of information had been something that only happened in sci-fi movies. Today it’s something many fear will become as necessary as a social security number is to every person in the United States. Still, there are many who welcome such technology and realize the advantages it could bring to modern society. For example, it could easily store the kind of information that would simplify and expedite security, medical care, loan approvals, and background checks. (Sickler, M., 2002) The ability to implant, In to a human, a means to quickly and securely gain access on their true identity and...

Words: 2085 - Pages: 9

Health Care Innovation- Cochlear Implant

...HCA 210 | Health Care Innovation | Cochlear Implants | Joseph Fortescue 12/22/2013 | In every country and culture there are people who suffer from hearing loss. Sometimes it is classified as conductive hearing loss where for some reason the sound waves are being blocked; which can usually be fixed with surgery. The majority of people who suffer from hearing loss have damage to the nerves that carry sounds to the brain. That is called sensorineural hearing loss; and there are new innovative ways to help those suffering from sensoineural hearing loss. Hearing aids were invented to help damaged nerves carry sound by amplifying the sound with a microphone. That only helps those who are hard of hearing; if you amplify sound to a deaf person they still cannot hear it. The cochlear implant however, does not amplify sound; it uses electromagnetic pulses to stimulate cells in the cochlea that activate the auditory nerve. This process bypasses the damaged nerves that receive sound waves, which for the majority of the time are the cause of hearing loss. I have heard about cochlear implants for a while now and wondered about the difference in quality of hearing after surgery. The cochlear implant picks up sound and transmits it through electromagnetic pulses so is there a possibility that the sounds get distorted in the process. Since it is not the traditional method of hearing maybe the sounds are not the same either. The patient has to go through habilitation to get......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Retinal Implants

...Retinal Implants The article I researched is “Will Retinal Implants Restore Vision?” by Eberhart Zrenner. In this article the author begins by discussing the vision process. It begins with light passing through the pupil. Next the light is focused onto the rods and cones on the outer layer of the retina by the lens. Once this happens the image is transformed into both chemical and electrical signals. The electrical signals are carried from the retina, by ganglion neurons, into the optic nerve. The axons of these ganglion neurons are what form the optic nerve. Finally the information is transferred from the optic nerve to the primary visual cortex, which is a part of the brain. The retina is considered the neuroprocessor of the eye and is responsible for the recognition of images. The article continues next stating that there are many different groups of researchers who are creating types of implants to possibly help the vision of patients with retinas that are degenerating. The author discusses, in great detail, one type is known as an electrical implant. These implants are able to connect right onto the retina. Zrenner states that when electrical implants were used in animal experiments, they have shown positive results. There is, however, a great deal of future research and experiments that must take place before they are used for humans. (Zrenner, 2002) The article goes on to discuss the two types of retinal implants that are being developed. These types are subretinal...

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Microchip Implants in Humans

...Microchip Implants in Humans. A technology I have been interested in has been the microchip implant. This is a transponder encased in silicate encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body. These typically contain a unique ID number that can be lined to the information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, medical history, and medications. This advance in technology can help with GPS tracking on a human. If a child was lost or abducted this chip could be tracked and potentially save the child’s life. Someone suffering from Alzheimer’s could benefit from this. We could keep better track on criminals who disappear once released and maintain updated records on those who should be registered as offenders. People with medical conditions could benefit from the implant as well. This implant could provide health information allowing a paramedic to scan your chip and administer proper medicine. If you were to pass out or have a heart attack and were unresponsive this could save your life. There have been trials of drug-releasing microchips. The results came back successful in women who were given doses of Osteoporosis. The results were published on the website of the journal Science Translational Medicine. A major impact I believe we could benefit from the microchip would be better security. There are some companies that have been using this technology. Rather than trying to remember or keeping from passing codes, this chip allows you......

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Implant Training

...In-Plant Training Report 2nd Semester (BCCT) Brandix College in clothing Technology and Management(dip 16) K.A. Vidun S. Piyasumana 2 INTRODUCTION I’m a student of Brandix College who is studying College Diploma in Textile Technology & Management where my name is K.A.Vidun S. Piyasumana. This is the Report of my second semester of my In-Plant Training program. This In-Plant training will let the diploma batch students to join to different Factories and study the whole process. Since the students are beginners to the field, BCCT provided us a guide line to adjust to this environment and continue that studying with the aid of a Guide Line. As I requested some Factories and as the College appointed me, I had to start my InPlant Training in Brandix Green Plant Seeduwa. Commencing on 14th February 2013 I started the Industrial Training for the College Diploma in Clothing Technology & Management Course under the influence and Coordination by Mr. Dinesh Sampath (HR Assistant of Brandix Casualwear Seeduwa) with so many supports & advisers. Initially after walking throughout the factory, I was introduced and guided to each section to study their process, and collect information under the influence of the department chief or Incharge and also from the Minor Staff. Most of the time I had to subject myself for self study, grab the knowledge by walking to the machine Operators and the staff and also be practical in some operations to get the real idea. So......

Words: 14690 - Pages: 59

Breast Implants

...ENGL 1102 English Composition II-Online 26 June 2015 It is not uncommon as an adult to undergo plastic surgery in America today. However, it is becoming more common for young adults and teenagers to have plastic surgery. One of the more popular plastic surgery routines is getting breast implants. When asked, teenagers expressed that they often feel awkward and flawed, and plastic surgery helps to “fix” their bodies. Teenagers seem to think that plastic surgery is the quick answer to fitting in with their peers. Our society has accepted that individuals of all ages are choosing to go under the knife in attempts to “correct” their bodies; including teenagers. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), there were 286,254 breast augmentations performed in the year 2014. Breast augmentation rates as the top procedure for women in America. Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure to increase the shape, size, and fullness of the female breast. While breast augmentation is a customary choice for adult women, the expanding popularity of breast augmentation with teenagers has led to a lot of criticism and speculation. There is little doubt that being a teenager is tough. Hormones, academic stress, and peer pressure are everyday struggles for the average American teen. In addition to this stress put on young females, there is the additional fact that body image is generally a big part of the problem. During teenage years the body is changing, and......

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Advances of Wireless Powering for Body Sensors and Implants

...Advances of Wireless Powering for Body Sensors and Implants Vieira, Caio Gagliano Sarkar, Mahasweta. Phd. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, San Diego State University Abstract This paper will talk about the advances that wireless powering can provides for medicine, especially for implants, prosthesis and sensor postsurgical. Looking for a reason that show why this is important and what has been created, what was already implemented, solutions from different institutions and what provisions exist for the next few years. Keywords • SAR (Specific Absorption Rate): unit of measurement that says the frequency range that can be absorbed by the human body. • RFID (Radio-frequency identification): is used to convert electromagnetic energy to electrical energy. Commonly used in tolls, parking lots and among others that uses a passive equipment to identify easily the customer. Another use for it has been to track animals, when a chip smaller that a grain of rice is implanted under the tissue of the animal and it can be read anytime to get an information needed. • iBMI (invasive brain machine interface) : it’s a type of device that goes in the patient’s brain to get data from it and send to a prosthesis to get movement that is needed. One real problem is how much battery the equipment is going to use to work. With this I found a good explanation about the problem at Wikipedia’s definition about Neuroprothetics: • Class-E power......

Words: 2274 - Pages: 10

Dow Corning and the Silicone Breast Implants

...Business Ethics 22 November 2011 Dow Corning and the Silicone Breast Implants The pressures society places on women’s physical appearances can and often has created a psychological weakness on many women’s state of mind and physical well-being. On average people spend in excess of seven billion dollars per year on plastic surgery. The obsession American women have come to believe is normal concerning their physical beauty drives women to plastic surgeons by the millions each year. Women like Selma Hayek, Pamela Anderson, and Dolly Parton are all in essence physical role models for the average woman. Many companies have created products that are used to enhance the female physic from the inside out. This writing will explore the lengths a company will go to in order to gain profit from women who are desperate to enhance their physical appearance. In addition, the ethical practices of a certain company that were set aside to maintain revenues and side step litigation are examined within this paper. The Dow Corning Corporation was once thought to be a stellar company in terms of its ethical business practices. The Dow Corning Corporation was established in 1897 by a Canadian Chemist named Herbert Henry Dow (Dow Corning Breast Implants, 2011). Dow Corning Corporation rapidly became one of the few major manufacturing producers that made silicone products. Considering the fact that the Dow Corning Corporation is the second largest manufacturer of chemicals in the world and......

Words: 1843 - Pages: 8

Chinn Implants

...Nobody can choose how to look when we are born, and I believe that most of us at some point notice our own defects in our body. It’s been quite long time since many women and even men do surgery on themselves to lose some weight, etc. but apparently that it's not enough now. Many people have been doing chin implants for the past few years and the numbers has increase considerably for a better self image, self esteem, and because there is a small risk rate on that operation. I do accept that having a surgery on your chin, because a malformation or an accident it could be of a great relief. Living your entire life with a malformation on your face, could be really painful for many people. Having an accident where the result is a deformation on your face could be even more painful, since a sudden change to our appearance could be as shocking and traumatizing as for a person that loses his or her ability to walk. Speaking for myself I'm grateful that I did not have any malformation on my face and body, cannot speak for those who do have these problems, although it wasn't their choice. The chin implant surgery could really be a great salvation for these people, but there are those that take advantage of these surgical advances for their own cosmetic vanity. According to the article publish by Diane Mapes “surgical procedures that enhance and define the chin line, increased 71 Percent between 2010 and 2011, outdoing breast augmentation, liposuction and even Botox” I find these......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3

Cochlear Implants

... Cochlear Implant Essay Jeanie Partlow HCA/COMM 270A The Context and Language of Health Care Randi White Warner Pacific College April 30, 2012 Cochlear Implant Essay A cochlear implant is a surgically implanted device that provides electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve in the inner ear. The device has internal and external components. The external parts consist of a microphone, a speech processor, and a transmitter. The internal parts include a receiver and electrodes. The external speech processor captures sound, converts it to digital code that is transmitted to the internal electrodes, and finally, communicated to the brain for interpretation as sound. Good candidates for the cochlear implant have profound bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment and functional auditory nerves. Three groups of patients that have the greatest potential success include post-lingually deaf adults, pre-lingually deaf children, and post-lingually impaired people (usually children) who have lost hearing due to diseases such as meningitis. Tyler, Fryauf-Bertschy, Kelsay, Gantz, Woodworth, Parkinson (1997) confirm pre-lingually deaf children are excellent candidates as they obtain the implant during the time that the brain is developing and highly functional in adapting to sensory input. The cochlear device is implanted behind the ear where the surgeon will create a pocket in the mastoid bone for the receiver. The electrode array is then placed through the inner ear into......

Words: 408 - Pages: 2