Industrial Revolution and Its Social Consequences

In: Historical Events

Submitted By VeeP
Words 1191
Pages 5
Running Head: THe Industrial Revolution and its social consequences.|
The Industrial Revolution and its social consequences|
Communism vs. Capitalism|


Two most significant social consequences of the First Industrial Revolution was the change in family life and Urbanization. The Industrial Revolution which began in the 18th Century and continuing into the 19th Century included manufacturing of goods, transportation and communication. Great Britain and the United States were at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution. (Masur) Steam was the source of power for the looms and other machines in the factories, as well as for the steam boats which soon replaced sail boats because they were more reliable and faster.
There was little need for human judgment and creativity in the mechanized factory. Unskilled laborers were replacing skilled artisans. The only job requirement was speed and stamina to be on your feet at the machines for hours with little or no breaks. The majority of factory jobs were held by children and women in the 18th century. (Honeyman, 2008)
Within the Cottage System, families worked together at their own pace with no outside management. Parents were in control in the homes and dictated the pace and task for the day. Increase in industrialization meant many families who previously worked together in their homes to provide goods and services now had to work in factories. While in the factories however, parents often worked side by side with their children and had no control of their children while at work. They were all supervised and directed by managers and owners. Mechanization was the replacement of human and animal labor with machines. (Zonderman, 1992)
Factory workers faced many challenges. According to Karl Marx these people were exploited and oppressed. (Holborn, 1980) They worked long hours,…...

Similar Documents

Industrial Revolution

...Industrial Revolution – A step to new era The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes. The Industrial Revolution began over 200 years ago. It changed the way in which many products, including cloth and textiles, were manufactured. It is called a "revolution" beacuse the changes it caused were great and sudden. It greatly affected the way people lived and worked. This revolution helped to bring about the modern world we know today in many ways. The Industrial Revolution was a major change in the nature of production in which machines replaced tools and steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power. The Industrial......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Industrial Revolution

...Essay Industrial Revolution Elena Orlovskaya   Industrial Revolution The economic history of the United States of America starts with the occurrence of industrialization, which, basically, meant switching from home production to plants and factories. The industrial revolution took place at the beginning of the XIXth century in most of the developed countries all over the world. Still it is considered more American phenomenon. This revolution changed the States so critically that I consider it to be the main factor that lead to the modern place of this country in the international environment. In my essay I will discuss some positive and negative aspects of the influence of industrialization on the United States. In my opinion the most constructive and crucial effect of the industrial revolution in America is change in people’s behavior. I believe labor is the only factor that is significant for development of any country. And the industrialization time in the States forced people to invent and implement everything they could imagine and construct in order to simplify the production process. There were very few scientists and specialists at that time in this country. So, every American had no other way to survive and earn money at that time and had to create, construct machines, build factories or work on factories. This changed the people’s psychology a lot. Till now, Americans consider new inventions, new machines and processes to be the only way for development of......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Industrial Revolution

...Why did the Industrial Revolution take place in eighteenth century Britain and not elsewhere in Europe or Asia? Answers to this question have ranged from religion and culture to politics and constitutions. In a just published book, The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective, I argue that the explanation of the Industrial Revolution was fundamentally economic. The Industrial Revolution was Britain’s creative response to the challenges and opportunities created by the global economy that emerged after 1500. This was a two step process. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries a European-wide market emerged. England took a commanding position in this new order as her wool textile industry out competed the established producers in Italy and the Low Countries. England extended her lead in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by creating an intercontinental trading network including the Americas and India. Intercontinental trade expansion depended on the acquisition of colonies, mercantilist trade promotion, and naval power. The upshot of Britain’s success in the global economy was the expansion of rural manufacturing industries and rapid urbanisation. East Anglia was the centre of the woollen cloth industry, and its products were exported through London where a quarter of the jobs depended on the port. As a result, the population of London exploded from 50,000 in 1500 to 200,000 in 1600 and half a million in 1700. In the eighteenth century, the......

Words: 1826 - Pages: 8

The Industrial Revolution

...The Industrial Revolution The term Industrial Revolution refers to the social and economic changes that led to the transition from an agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial one. This revolution relied on machinery instead of basic tools. This happened in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century until the middle of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of Europe as well as other parts of the world. The period of explorations from the 14th to the 16th centuries helped in laying the foundations for the Industrial Revolution. Because of the explorations and subsequently colonialism, gold and silver from the New World flooded Europe. Prices of commodities rose, industries bloomed and a money-based economy fully developed. The expansion of trade and the economy based on money led to the creation of financial and lending institutions. Thus, the necessary factors for the emergence of an Industrial Revolution had already been established in the 15thcentury. The term Industrial revolution does not imply that changes happened only in the industry. In fact, the rise in the number of factories, the economic changes and the new inventions in science all had a great impact in the lives of the people in Europe and even the whole world. THE RISE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN GREAT BRITAIN From the 18th to the 19th centuries, Great Britain was the leading force in industry. It had large deposits of coal and iron. Because...

Words: 2414 - Pages: 10

Industrial Revolution

...Jordan Sherlock HIS 102 Kevin Nehil 4/18/12 Industrial Revolution You could ask almost anyone in the world if they have ever heard of the Industrial Revolution and chances are most would agree that they have. Some people may not know when or how it started or perhaps even where it started. One thing all of the people may have is an opinion; these people have an opinion about whether or not they believe that it was a good thing or a bad thing for the world. The Industrial Revolution, much like anything else in the world, had both its perks and flaws. Overall, it was a great thing. It not only modernized the world to better suit the way humans live, but it also made improvements to make technology more competitive to make better products. To better help create your own opinion one must first know some background about the Industrial Revolution and how this life changing era began. The Industrial Revolution began in Western Europe during the early to mid 18th century. With this, came a “new” and more modern world. During this time period farming was the primary livelihood in Western Europe with “at least 75% of the people making their living off from the land” (Goodman 86). During the winter months the people did not have very much to do other than stay inside and carefully ration supplies that they stored from the year before. This down time allowed for the cottage industry to come about. This not only helped pass the farmers time but it allowed the farmers to create......

Words: 1142 - Pages: 5

Industrial Revolution

...Why Did The Industrial Revolution Happen First in Britain? The industrial Revolution began in Great Britain almost 250 years ago, in the 1760s. Within a half century it started to spread, first to northwestern Europe and the newly formed United States. The Industrial Revolution consisted of the application of new sources of power to the production process, achieved with transmission equipment necessary to apply this power to manufacturing which involved an increased scale of human organization that facilitated specialization and coordination at pre-industrial levels groupings rarely contemplated. The key invention in Europe’s industrial revolution was the steam engine, which harnessed the energy potential of coal. Later, the industrial revolution also used electric and internal combustion motors and petroleum as well as coal. This revolution, progressively introduced steam or other power to the production process and steadily increased the proportion of the process accomplished by equipment without direct human guidance. The organizational facet of the industrial revolution was initially symbolized by the factory, but the organizational principles spread beyond the factory itself. The two central features of industrialization were the revolution in technology and organization of production, which yielded one clear result of a great increase in the total of goods and individual worker’s output. The revolutionary quality of industrialization is particularly obvious in the......

Words: 3415 - Pages: 14

The Industrial Revolution

...The industrial revolution began in England and was a period of great inventions, advancements, and dramatic change for the country (1760 – 1850). The key invention of the industrial revolution was the steam engine, which was invented by Thomas Newcomen, but later vastly improved by James Watt in 1769. Watt’s steam engines eventually powered factory machines, locomotives, and steamships. This steam-powered machinery developed the mass-production of manufactured goods, which impacted every aspect of British life. The industrial revolution not only changed the way people lived and worked, but also introduced new social classes. Of course, these radical changes prompted reform forced by political and government intervention. Being the first industrialist nation, England introduced two new social classes, the middle class (factory and mine owners) and the working class (people who worked in the factories and mines). The factory owners operated in an extremely completive economy. Therefore, their main concern was reducing costs and maximizing profits. In order to stay afloat, factory owners kept wages low, got as much labor out of their workers as possible, and avoided spending money on amenities, or safety. Unconcerned with the wellbeing of their workers, factory owners and their managers enforced strict working conditions. Workers were required to labor long grueling hours (at least 12 to 16 hour shifts) six days a week, under strict supervision, and in......

Words: 2478 - Pages: 10

Industrial Revolution

...201302644 TERM PAPER OUTLINE Thesis The Industrial Revolution introduced technological advancements in manufacturing output, agricultural output, and social growth. These advancements came at a price of public health and safety, paid by the lower and middle class. Progressive economic growth was not achieved until after these issues were resolved. Argument Statement 1 Children as young as 6 years old were forced to work up to 19 hours a day in harsh conditions. The safety of children was often neglected, resulting in injury and death. The treatment of children was often cruel and unusual. Many faced beatings and various forms of punishment to ensure good productivity. * Through closer examination, the text proves that entire families were forced to work long hours, with little or no pay to ensure survival. * In 1833 a factory act was passed allowing a maximum number of hours for certain age groups, allowing for more satisfied and productive employees. Argument Statement 2 By the 1820s, Britain saw their population double in the industrial hubs. The increase in population and decreased standards of living meant civilians were confronted with disease. * As raw sewage and chemical bi-products from factories made its way into drinking water, Cholera began to infest the population killing thousands. Argument Statement 3 Because of the high demands for labor during the revolution, all family members were required to work in order......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Industrial Revolution

...Prior to the industrial revolution United States mainly struggled maintaining stable flow in its economics and politics. Despite all U.S. had gone through, this part of world was always attractive to Europeans and Europe encouraged Americans to absorb the rules of new era that required industrial revolution. Although industrialization started in United States by early 19th century, but total industrial revolution took place since Civil War ended; and it started booming by the beginning of 20th century. Three major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics. Consider issues such as geography, entrepreneurship, legislative representation, etc. In terms of its aspects, many aspects of industrialization can be identified. Among those, innovations & technology, capitalism and labor unions were the most important and obvious aspects of this revolutionized era. * Innovations & technology Well educated people who had observed an industrial change in Western Europe were so enthusiastic about applying the same in the States. These people were mainly from north eastern part of the country, because universities were established in this part of the country earlier than any other part. Incandescent light bulb was revolutionary innovation which had a direct impact on all areas of industry. Thomas Edison was the genius behind this innovation, whose idea made it possible to work for longer hours, even after sunset in...

Words: 1550 - Pages: 7

Industrial Revolution

...Industrial Revolution Name Institution Industrial Revolution |Essay about the Industrial |[pi|[pi|[pi| |Revolution |c] |c] |c] | |The Industrial revolution was a time of drastic change and transformation from hand tools, and hand made items to machine manufactured and | |mass produced goods. This change generally helped life, but also hindered it as well. Pollution, such as co2 levels in the atmosphere rose,| |working conditions declined, and the number of women and children working increased. The government, the arts, literature, music and | |architecture and man's way of looking at life all changed during the period. Two revolutions took place, both resulting in productive but | |also dire consequences. | |Before the first industrial revolution, England's economy was based on its cottage industry.  Workers would buy raw materials from | |merchants, take it back to their cottages, hence the name, and produce the goods at their home. It was usually was owned and managed by one| |or more people, who were generally close to the workers. There was a good worker/boss relationship, which was demolished and destroyed by | |capitalism. This industry was efficient but the workers, productivity was low, making costs higher. The longer it......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Industrial Revolution

...revolutionary progresses are social based When you think of national progress, what would you think of? Economical, Political, or Societal? Actually, although people believe that most reforms or progress is for the benevolence of all three of these elements equally, revolutions such as the Industrial Revolution are more driven towards the success of the economics. The industrial revolution itself caused a massive uprising of ideas based on engineering for the sole purpose of convenience, and made a huge gap between the rich, the middle, and the poor, and classified the middle and the poor as the working classes and most of the topics went to the working class. However, this is more unlikely to be a political progress since the convenience and affordable factor all went to boost England’s economy and have the society afford them for cheaper. The progress of the Industrial Revolution was based on socioeconomic reasons because, due to the Industrial revolution, England’s economy increased, rate of employment for unemployed workers increased because of the ability to mass produce products using the newly invented machines to create a better economy for corporations, and a lot of products could be produced in cheap prices because mass production was possible and this increased the standard of living to modernization. Another example of socioeconomic progress is the French Revolution. The French revolutionists and poor social class strived to change the social class division......

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Industrial Revolution

...The Industrial Revolution: A Means to an End Capitalism is the result of constant revolutions led by a lower class. Karl Marx states that the “modern bourgeois is itself the product of a long course of development of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange”(Marx, 160). The bourgeoise are the group of people who were able to seize control of the means of production for their community. They control the manufacturing of all the resources the people might need. The bourgeois maintain command of the production while the proletariat are the ones who carry out the actual work. Marx believed the only limiting factors of the proletariat’s status beneath the bourgeois were the current level of technology available and, although that technology is keeping them down, it will advance to the point of giving the proletariat a chance to shrink the gap between themselves and those above them, “but with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number, it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows and it feels that strength more”(166). The Industrial Revolution was the gateway to modern economics and ushered in an age of poorer working standards, profit based business models, and the end to artisanship. The Industrial Revolution was the beginning of a new type of economy. The machines and inventions spawned during this time allowed people to perform certain tasks much more efficiently and increased the level of......

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Industrial Revolution

...“Industrial Revolution” GKE Task 4 WGU Indiana The Industrial Revolution was the change from hand crafted products and small farming operations to machine manufactured products and large scale farms using more mechanical equipment. While the birthplace of the revolution was in Britain around 1760, one similar took place in America from 1790 to 1870. Britain had tried very hard to keep the monopoly on its industrial technology, however this couldn’t last forever. Some of the British saw the potential of profitable opportunities and took this knowledge abroad (Industrial Revolution, 2013) With any major change in a society has consequences. One social consequence of the Industrial Revolution was the division of social classes. Before, there were the very rich and the very poor. As factories and industry made production of goods more efficient, these goods were cheaper. People could now afford to buy everything they needed and still have money left over. They could now afford to enjoy leisure goods instead of only buying what they needed to survive. Thus, the emergence of the middle class. This class consisted of anyone with a decent job, shop clerks, accountants, managers and so on (Introduction to the Industrial Revolution). While the production of goods at a faster rate and larger quantity made them cheaper and more available had its advantages, the division of society had negative consequences as well. The use of technology on farms meant......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Industrial Revolution

...Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was an unprecedented period in European history that occured in 18th and 19th century. It represents one of the most significant eras of the modern European history, during which major changes took place in everyday lives of millions across the continent and further beyond. These major changes included improvements in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology, withboth, positive and negative consequences. The main focus of the essay will be the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (after 1707), an empire (U.K.) that included colonies from all over the world. Practiacally, the Great Britain is the place where it all began. The question is why does the Industrial Revolution occurs in the Great Britain? There are many reasons. The most significant one is that the Britain had an empire which included colonies from Canada to Austalia. It controlled many trade channels and imposed itself as the leading naval superpower. The preconditions were fulfilled and the Britain practically controlled half of the world before, for example, Germany was even unified. The colonies provided many raw materials, with many of them being so rare, that they could be found only in those particular parts of the world. The industrialization, however, had not took place in Britain's colonies. This was not a coincidence, on the contrary. By this, the Great Britain made an access to new markets. Indeed, it does sound absurd that......

Words: 1267 - Pages: 6

Industrial Revolution

...Abstract The second U.S. Industrial Revolution had a great impact on American lives. This assignment will discuss two positive and two negative effects of industrialization in the United States. I will also discuss whether industrialization was beneficial or deter mental to the lives of Americans and the history of the United States. Industrialization in America The second Industrial Revolution was also known as the Technological Revolution and followed the first Industrial Revolution. France, Germany, and the United States were the main countries involved in the second revolution. Historians wanted an industrial system. This meant they needed a “set of arraignments or processes – whether of extraction, production, transportation, distribution, or finance – organized to make the whole industrial order function smoothly.” (Davidson, Stoff , DeLay, Heyman, & Lytle, 2011) To gain the industrial system they desired new technology needed to be invented. One of these inventions came in the form of communications. “In the early 1840’s newspapers were the form of communication” however it took too long for newspapers to reach people. From New York to Indiana, it took 10 days to get there and if by ship, it took three months to arrive in San Francisco. This was a great disadvantage for the new industrial order. Transportation had been greatly improved, but without communication, materials or goods needed would have to wait until the......

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5