Knockout Mice

In: Science

Submitted By Wasman
Words 2525
Pages 11
Knockout Mice Technology | Submitted By : Wasman ID : 11136007Course ID : BTE 402 |

Knockout Mice Technology | Submitted By : Wasman ID : 11136007Course ID : BTE 402 |

Modern medicine is the product of centuries of experiences in dealing with various diseases and disorders related to the human physiology. From the discovery of vaccination to the discovery of antibiotics, each medical breakthrough highlighted the success of humans in dealing with the prevailing medical issues of that time. With the discovery of the structure of DNA by Crick and Watson in the early 1950s, the focus on medical research has shifted to the understanding of the genetic cause of a particular disease. Because of this, we are now able to understand the pathophysiology behind much of the diseases that has been a mystery to us before. An example of this is cancer, which was initially untreatable, but now thanks to our ever improving understanding of the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of the disease we are almost a step closer to achieving a reliable cure.
In order to understand the progression of a particular disease accurately, scientists need to recreate the symptoms in a controlled environment (e.g. a laboratory) within a living organism. Such organisms are known as model organisms, because they serve as a live model which allows us to explore the workings of the disease. Due to various ethical issues, using humans as model organisms are out of the question, so scientists have looked towards other organisms to fulfil this purpose. Different organisms have been used for different research purposes, with notable examples being the use of organisms such as yeasts, worms and flies for studying the cell cycle and many developmental processes. For genetic diseases, however, a genetically similar organism to humans are required, since the results will be different in…...

Similar Documents

Of Men and Mice

...The Cambridge Laboratories Case Series Dennis R. Shaughnessy Executive Professor “Of Mice and Men” A Negligence and Liability Theory Case While this is a fictional business case, prepared for class instruction purposes, students will be asked to treat certain of the information contained herein as not in the public domain and therefore confidential, as directed by the instructor. Cambridge Laboratories, Inc. is widely known in the biomedical research community for its expertise in providing a range of services related to the management of genetically engineered (“transgenic”) mice. The Company provides a variety of specialized services to pharmaceutical and biotech companies that support the development, maintenance and use of proprietary transgenic mice, including breeding and colony scale-up, short and long-term housing, embryo cryopreservation, genetic testing, health profiling, dosing and biologics production. Cambridge has specialized facilities in several countries, including bio-secure facilities (BSL3 and below only). Cambridge was recently approached by a small privately-held biotechnology company (BTC), to provide transgenic services on a new proprietary transgenic mouse model. BTC’s unique transgenic mouse produces a toxin that effectively disables a certain strain of filovirus, normally found in remote areas of Central Africa, known as “Tinochika” (in local dialect, “the one we live in fear of”). The so-called TC virus, a......

Words: 1527 - Pages: 7

Of Mice and Men

...Reading File – Class 5   1.   Summary Retell the story in your own words or attach a good summary from the internet (mentioning your source)..... The book Of Mice and Men is about two poor guys, George and Lennie, who travel together to find work. Lennie is a big, clumsy  man, who doesn’t know his own strength and he is also childlike, simple and easily forgetful. Lennie goes through  life with his fellow George, a smart guy and hard worker who takes care of Lennie. The book starts with  them walking down a road, they ran away from their job in Weed because the stupid, innocent Lennie touched a ladie’s dress (because Lennie likes soft things). Lennie and George have a shared dream: having their own farm, where they can keep all kinds of animals, and can live from their harvest when they have saved enough money. When they on their way to a ranch, hoping to find work, they sleep in the clearing (a place near a river) for one night. The next day they come to the bunkhouse and they get a job. Soon they meet the other workers on the ranch, including Curley, the son of the boss. Curley is mean, aggressive and a lightweight-boxer. Because he is so small he doesn’t like big guys, he feels threatened by them. So an aggressive look and a rude attitude is his first reaction when he sees big Lennie. The next day when Curley comes into the room, Lennie is attacked by Curley. But strong Lennie defends himself and crushes  (accidentally) the hand of Curley, because he tried to......

Words: 2159 - Pages: 9

Of Mice and Men

...Characterization of Lennie and George - Of Mice and Men The two main characters in “Of Mice and Men” are George Milton and Lennie Small. The story is written by John Steinbeck during the Great Depression in USA. Lennie and George have a very unorthodox relationship at that time but they are still like a family to each other. The relationship between them is different from any other relationship that was common among most workers during the Great Depression. Migrant workers usually travel alone but it is different with Lennie and George, they do almost everything together and they take care of each other. They also grew up together and all the kids, including George, would always make fun of Lennie, but one day George rescues Lennie from dying and since that day, Lennie begin to trust George. If anyone threats or talks bad about George, Lennie will be there to protect him and George also protects Lennie from bad guys such as Curley. Lennie is much stronger than he think and if George tells him to fight for himself or to rescue another man, Lennie is ready to kill, because he loves and respect George so much. Lennie is mentally handicapped so he needs George to talk for him and to take care of him and that is also one of the reasons why they are travelling around together. George tolerates that Lennie is with him, because he would be alone if Lennie was not there, and Lennie also loyally follows George, because he don’t have any family left besides George. George is the small......

Words: 427 - Pages: 2

Of Mice and Men

...A major motif of John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men is the American dream and the drive to attain it. The life of a ranch hand is grim, yet the characters in the novel are still vulnerable to dreams of a better life. The dream of owning land, called the American dream by some, is what motivates George and Lennie in their work on the ranch. It is their friendship that sustains this dream and makes it possible. While the dreams are credible to the reader, in the end all dreams are crushed, and the characters are defeated by their circumstances. The characters in Of Mice and Men have very little to look forward to as migrant ranch hands. They travel from ranch to ranch with all of their possessions in a bundle, looking for work for fifty dollars a month, and that work does not usually last very long. If a man is a good worker, he might be kept on at the ranch indefinitely and wind up as Candy does, old and crippled, just waiting until he is no longer useful. George explains the despair of a ranch hand to Lennie: Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don't belong no place. They come to a ranch an' work up a stake and then they go inta town and blow their stake, and the first thing you know they're poundin' their tail on some other ranch. They ain't got nothing to look ahead to. (Steinbeck 13-14) Despite their destitute state, many of the characters in Of Mice and Men are prone to dream. George......

Words: 842 - Pages: 4

Mice

...AN INDUSTRIAL PROJECT ON ASSEMBLED COMPUTERS PREFERENCE OVER BRANDED COMPUTERS AT NOBLE I’TECH NEW MARKET, PAKYONG AN AUTHORISED STUDY CENTRE MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER EDUCATION SUBMITTED ON PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF MASTERS IN COMMERCE (M.COM) PREPARED BY: NAME: BINOD DANGAL REGISTRATION NO.: 09SU1615 ROLL NO.: 12SGMCOM001 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF EXTERNAL GUIDE INTERNAL GUIDE BHIMLALL KHATIWARA DR. JIBAN UPHADYAYA (CENTRAL INCHARGE) (ASISTANT PROFESSOR) SUBMITTED TO COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SIKKIM GOVT. COLLEGE ABBREVIATIONS MICE : Manipal Institute of Computer Education DTP : Desk Top Publishing RAM : Random Access Memory ROM : Read Only Memory SMPS : Switch Mode Power Supply VGA : Video Graphic Adapter ATM : Automatic Teller Machine CAGR : Compound Annual Growth Rate PREFACE As we know very well that today’s world is a computer world where every task is done by the computer. And it is important to have computer knowledge for every individual. Giving priority to this, Manipal Institute of Computer Education is trying to fulfil the needs of common people by promoting computer service. The project entitled “Assembled Computer preference over Branded Computers” have prepared strictly in accordance with the format describe by the University. The project has been divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter has been divided into......

Words: 4056 - Pages: 17

Mice Tourism

...Meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions (MICE, with the “E” sometimes referring to events[1] and the “C” sometimes referring to conventions) is a type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance, are brought together for a particular purpose. Recently, there has been an industry trend towards using the term 'meetings industry' to avoid confusion from the acronym.[2] Other industry educators are recommending the use of "events industry" to be an umbrella term for the vast scope of the meeting and events profession. Most components of MICE are well understood, perhaps with the exception of incentives. Incentive tourism is usually undertaken as a type of employee reward by a company or institution for targets met or exceeded, or a job well done. Unlike the other types of MICE tourism, incentive tourism is usually conducted purely for entertainment, rather than professional or education purposes.[3] MICE tourism usually includes a well-planned agenda centered around a theme or topic, such as profession trade organization, a special interest group or an education topic. Such tourism is often a specialized area with its own exhibition (e.g., IMEX,[4] EIBTM,[5] GIBTM,[6] AIBTM,[7] CIBTM.[8] and AIME[9]) and practices MICE industry in Asia Over the past few years, there has been a trend of growing numbers of international conventions held in Asia. ICCA reports the Asia-Pacific region to have held 1,879 conventions in 2011.[11] Singapore is...

Words: 451 - Pages: 2

Gene Knockout

...INTRODUCTION The Secrets Behind Gene Knockout Technology Presently, knockout gene technology or gene knockout technology (abbreviation: KO) allows experimenters to inactivate specific genes within an organism and determine the effect of this on the functioning of the organism. Also, they are used in learning about a gene that has been sequenced, but which has unknown or incompletely known function. Genes can be knocked out in microorganisms as well as organisms of greater complexity, such as mosquitoes, flies, and worms. However, the mouse is perhaps the most important species in which researchers can now use in this technology because of two reasons: (1) the mouse is the most genetically manipulated mammal in the world and (2) it shares much of its genetic material with humans (and other mammals) which means that experimental findings in mice will often be directly relevant to conditions in humans. The paper focuses on the controversies and challenges in Gene Knockout Technology – an article/blog entitled “Sickle Cell Disease cured by Gene Knock-out”. Switching off a single gene can help treat sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia (a chronic, usually fatal anemia marked by sickle-shaped red blood cells, occurring almost exclusively in Black people of Africa or of African descent, and characterized by episodic pain in the joints, fever, leg ulcers, and jaundice. The disease occurs in individuals who are homozygous for a mutant hemoglobin gene) by keeping the......

Words: 1516 - Pages: 7

Of Rats, Mice, and Men

...Of Rats, Mice, and Men There are a number of reasons why we use mice and rats in laboratory testing. Mice and rats breed fast, which allows for the testing of generations in a few months, whereas it would take years to test at that level in humans. Along the lines of breeding, it is also worthy to note that the test subjects are inbred, so any genetic anomalies caused by the product over generations would be easier to track. When looking at product safety, or the potential threat posed by the product, we can look at various generations to find a modicum of proof, it is this level of testing that is required by overseers such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(1). When we wonder where we get the mice and rats for testing, we may think of a person out there catching them. The truth could not be further away from this. The test subjects must all be the same breed, and must have pure genetic histories. In addition to this they must undergo tests for genetic defects, because defects of this nature could affect the results of the experiment. In other words, the mice and rats used must have a pure genetic history before even being considered for testing. Our little furry friends are small, which makes storage and maintenance easy. Large numbers of them can be tested in a relatively small space. They are also plentiful and cheap. You can get a large number of them for a minimal expenditure. All of these factors go into the decision to use mice and rats, but......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Of Mice and Men

...Mikayla Weinke 04/23/14 Advanced Lit. and Comp. Mr. West Symbolism is a key concept throughout the novel, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck. Though there were many examples of symbolism, mice were paramount throughout the book, even included in the title of the novel. They were symbolic of the struggle with helplessness. The mice and Lenny were helpless and acted without the ability to understand consequences they may face because of their lack of cognitive ability. The mice in the story were helpless creatures that were only seeking love and affection. As any other animal, mice act upon nature instinct. Their brains don’t have a thinking process of cause and effect; they act upon what their natural instinct is. So when the mouse acted impulsively and bit Lennie, Lennie acted impulsively and killed the mouse. Lennie was different from most people. His brain didn’t process the way a normal human beings does. All he wanted was to be loved and cared for like any other person. He was unable to understand the potential consequences of his actions, but rather acted on impulse. He was so helpless that most of the time when he got into situations, he couldn’t even remember them. So when Lennie and Curleys wife got into an argument and Lennie got scared he acted upon impulse and shook Curleys wife to death. The title of the book is Of Mice and Men which from previous examples show how both can be helpless creatures. In examples throughout the book these helpless......

Words: 387 - Pages: 2

Of Mice and Men

...Michael Emminger Ms. Wanczuk English 9 Honors Period 3 11/21/13 Character Analysis Essay A time of sickness, bankruptcy, and underground liquor runs; the 1930’s were a devastating time in which our protagonists lived. Of Mice and Men is a classic book by John Steinbeck. Published in 1937, this tale shows the adventures of two poor men, George and Lennie, who are suffering in the Great Depression. The book goes through a portion of their life through different places and roads. Lennie, I believe, is the most interesting character. Lennie shows his strengths and flaws from Of Mice and Men by having a big heart but bigger hands, helping keep George sane, and accidentally killing animals and people. Lennie has extraordinary physical strength, but his mind does not have that type of power. His head and heart did not know what to do when Curley started punching him and: “he was too frightened to defend himself… Curley’s fist was swinging when Lennie reached for it. The next minute Curley was flopping like a fish on a line, and his closed fist was lost in Lennie’s big hand” (69). Lennie’s brain could not comprehend the events developing around him and his body initially shut off in the process. If it was not for George yelling at him to fight back Lennie could have been really hurt. Some might say fighting is wrong all together, but if it is not possible to walk away from it then it is important to defend yourself. Even though it took him a while to be convinced to hit......

Words: 761 - Pages: 4

Of Mice and Men

...Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Exam style practice questions for AQA GCSE English Literature Teaching notes The following questions are designed to meet the assessment objectives for Of Mice and Men for GCSE English Literature Unit 1, Section B: Exploring cultures. Where we have created practice questions, they follow a similar structure and wording to the questions that have been set for examination. Questions are provided for each section of the text, according to the passage focused on in Part (a). It is not necessary to have completed a reading of the whole text in order to answer Part (a) of each question, so you may wish to use one or more of these with students as they study a particular section. Part (b) of each question requires reference to the novel as a whole. Where available, past paper questions have been identified for you to use as possible practice questions for that section of the text. These can be downloaded here: http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/english/gcse/english-literature-9710/past-papers-and-markschemes. Please note that for copyright reasons past papers are moved to the Secure Key Materials of the AQA website after three years, with copyright extracts removed. Please also note that the passages focused on in Part (a) of the practice questions below have not been reproduced, again for copyright reasons. Section 1 Foundation Read the following passage and then answer Part (a) and Part (b). Extract from p.2, ‘For a moment the......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Mice

...MEETINGS, INCENTIVES, CONVENTIONS AND EXHIBITION/ EVENTS (MICE) Discuss the roles of a meeting planner. The roles of a meeting planner expanded with the increasing importance of meeting, convention and expositions. Meeting planners are responsible to select the site for meeting,conventions or exposition. They also reserve meeting space, hotels rooms and audiovisual and other equipment. Beside that, arrange for food and beverage is a part of their job. Organize guest registration, arrange for name tags and handouts, plans programs for participants and their guests, work with the exhibitors and lectures and make floor plans. They also arrange for security so that there is no disturbing during the meeting. In general, a meeting planner is responsible in every aspects of the event. They need to look at every details of the meeting to ensure the planned going smoothly. Based on your research through books and internet, how have the MICE industry affected local economy in Malaysia? The MICE industry affect local economy in Malaysia by become an important economic sector in many part of the world developed as very important in modern global market, also known as meeting, incentives, conventions and exhibitions sector meeting industry. In Malaysia The Convention and Exhibition Bureau (MyCEB) is instrumental in powering the nation’s MICE industry. Malaysia has built various convention facilities like the Borneo Convention Center Kuching in Sarawak, the Putrajaya......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Mice to Men

...Professor Gordon ENC 1102 TTH 830 am 19 November 2009 Research Paper Of Mice and Men John Steinbeck the author of the novel, Of Mice and Men, wrote a story about two migrant workers and their dream of one day owning their own piece of land (Bloom). George Milton and Lennie Small are the two main characters that travel together in search for work. The story took place in California, during the Great Depression, a time in history where everyone suffered from the economical problems and hardship. It was a hard era to live in, there was an extremely high unemployment rate, no one had a steady job and people had to adapt to a new living style. John Steinbeck was present at this time and had a firsthand experience working on a ranch (Leaf). He wrote about the American dream every human being wanted; through the characters of George and Lennie, who both dreamt for the same future, in owning their own land and working for no one else. These two characters are both similar in the sense of wanting the same thing, yet are completely different. Also, Steinbeck included a character, Curly, who lives every American dream and displays how he is. I am going to characterization these three major characters and show their part in the novel. The story begins with two different, thus alike men who are each other’s companion. George and Lennie are both men who work on ranches for money and do not have family, thus they both have a common future. They are both hard workers and optimistic......

Words: 1632 - Pages: 7

Mice & Men

...M. Loeffler Regents Prep 11. English 11 In The Histories of Herodotus, Herodotus states that “…men are at the mercy of events and cannot control them.” There are two novels that I have read that this quote applies to. The novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck is about two migrant farm workers, George and Lenny, who get into trouble due to the fact that Lenny is slow minded and huge in physical stature. The other novel that comes to mind is Night by Elieser Wiesel. In this novel, Elie is part of the deportation to Nazi concentration camps during World War II. In the novel Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck uses characterization to portray the characters and help the reader get to know them. In this book, Lenny is a very large man but is mentally handicapped. George, his friend since childhood, takes Lenny under his wing and tries to keep him out of trouble while still saving up money for their dream. The two men’s dream consist of buying a little farm house far away from everybody while having animals and “living off the land.” This dream is almost within reach until Lenny makes a life changing mistake and accidentally kills his boss’s daughter in-law by strangling her trying to keep her quiet. Then, all of the farm hands are sent out in a search party to find Lenny. George finds Lenny first and ends up shooting him in the back of the head while Lenny is in the middle of a day dream so......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Of Mice and Men

...Loneliness in Of Mice And Men In the novel “Of Mice and Men” John Steinbeck illustrates loneliness in numerous ways. Steinbeck creates a lonely and blue atmosphere at nearly every stage of the novel. This is shown in everything from the setting of ranch to the way the characters are portrayed. In my opinion the four characters that exude the most identifiable sadness are Lennie, Curley’s wife, Crook’s and Candy. This is depicted in different ways for each character, each given a different form of loneliness. For some of these characters loneliness is the sadness resulting from being forsaken or abandoned which seems to be the case for Lennie. At the beginning of the novel Lennie and George are discussing Lennie’s Aunt Clara that cared for him when he was growing up. It was said that she gave him soft things such as mice and velvet for him to hold and touch, which continues into his life even at the end of the novel. Lennie often speaks of tending to the rabbits when they talk about their dream of buying a farm. Although Lennie has George, who he loves and idolizes he if often shunned by George and made to look stupid. "If you don’ want me I can go off in the hills an’ find a cave. I can go away any time." From the rabbits and the mice he would receive unconditional love and no orders of what to do and what not to do. The way he needs these comforting items shows the lack of nourishment and love in his childhood. He also has no one he can really relate to......

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5