Managing the Internationalization Process

In: Business and Management

Submitted By HEY00
Words 14656
Pages 59
Managing the internationalization process
Learning outcomes
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: ➤ Understand the motives for internationalization. ➤ Apply the theories underpinning the internationalization process. ➤ Explain the Psychic Distance and Born Global concepts.


➤ Advise a multinational firm on choosing an appropriate entry mode for internationalization. ➤ Advise a multinational firm on de-internationalization.


Global strategic development

Opening case study Internationalization of a French retailer—Carrefour
In 1960, Carrefour opened its first supermarket in France. In 1963, Carrefour invented a new store concept—the hypermarket. The hypermarket concept was novel, and revolutionized the way French people did their shopping. It moved daily shopping from small stores to enormous stores where customers find everything they want under one roof, in addition to selfservice, discount price, and free parking space. The first Carrefour hypermarket store was established at the intersection of five roads—hence the name, Carrefour, which means ‘crossroads’. Carrefour is the leading retailer in Europe and the second largest worldwide, with

Exhibit A International development of Carrefour
Year Country and mode of entry No. of stores (2009) 1969 1973 1975 1982 1989 1991 1993 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1997 1998 1998 2000 Belgium—Carrefour’s first hypermarket outside France Spain Brazil—Carrefour’s first hypermarket in the Americas Argentina Taiwan—Carrefour’s first hypermarket in Asia Greece Italy Turkey Malaysia China Thailand Poland Singapore Colombia Indonesia Japan 120 2,241 476 518 59 544 494 578 16 443 31 303 2 59 43 0 57(HM), 63(SM) 162(HM), 96(SM), 1,972(HD), 11(CS) 162(HM), 39(SM), 267(HD), 8(CS) 67(HM), 112(SM), 339(HD) HM 31(HM), 209 (SM), 271 (HD), 33(CS) 66(HM), 236(SM), 178(CS), 14(C&C) 22(HM), 125(SM), 431(HD) HM 134(HM),…...

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