Nhis

In: Other Topics

Submitted By shamu74
Words 2891
Pages 12
International Journal of Drug Development & Research | October-December 2011 | Vol. 3 | Issue 4 | ISSN 0975-9344 | Available online http://www.ijddr.in Covered in Official Product of Elsevier, The Netherlands ©2010 IJDDR Awareness of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) activities among employees of a Nigerian University
*

Adibe M.O., Udeogaranya P.O and Ubaka C.M

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (410101), Enugu State, Nigeria.

FULL Length Research Paper Covered in Index Copernicus with IC Value 4.68 for 2010

Abstract Aim: Aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of NHIS activities among employees of a Nigerian university. Methods: The study was conducted among the employees of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. A 30-question consisting of 5 points response scale was developed for the survey questionnaire. On the 5-point scale, ‘5’ represented the highest mean score while ‘1’ represented the lowest mean score. On the 30-question questionnaire the lowest possible score would be 30 while the highest possible score would be 150. Total awareness mean score above a logical neutral point which was assumed to be 90 i.e. midpoint between 30 and 150, correlates with being aware and vice versa. Levels of awareness were categorised priori: summated mean awareness scores below 90 were considered to be unaware, ‘>90 to 110’ - marginally aware, ‘> 110 to 130’ - moderately aware, and ‘> 130 to 150’ - highly aware of NHIS activities, since high summated score correlates with high level of awareness. Results: A response rate of 87.2% (436 out of 500 questionnaires) was obtained. Awareness was significantly associated with all the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Following summation, the sub total awareness mean scores for objectives of the scheme,…...

Similar Documents

Personality Theory

...11-9, từ nay về sau ban Content sẽ chỉ gồm 2 nhánh là “Thanh niên” và “Thiếu nhi” thay vì trước đây là 3 nhánh theo 3 mặt trận giảng dạy để tránh công việc soạn giáo án bị trùng lặp cũng như để tạo sự thống nhất về nội dung giáo trình. Tuy nhiên, với sự thay đổi này, trong 3 phó ban ban đầu sẽ có 2 người phụ trách bên nhánh “Thanh niên”, công việc sắp tới của 2 phó ban này vì thế cũng bị chồng chéo. Cho nên Content sẽ chỉ cần 2 phó ban thôi và theo ý kiến anh Lương Toàn, anh sẽ thôi không làm phó ban nữa để 2 bạn k11 có cơ hội phát huy năng lực của mình. BCN cho em ý kiến về việc này nhé! II. Các địa bàn giảng dạy: 1. Quận đoàn: Cố gắng thực hiện đúng tiến độ như đã ký kết trong liên tịch, tức là đến tháng 12 sẽ kết thúc khóa học, sau đó vào đầu tháng 1 sẽ cho các học viên thi lấy chứng chỉ A với chỉ tiêu: 3 học viên lấy được chứng chỉ. Vì vậy chậm nhất trong tuần sau, Xuân Nhi và Lương Toàn sẽ soạn syllabus cho mặt trận này để giúp các bạn tham gia giảng dạy có được định hướng cụ thể để đảm bảo tiến độ thực hiện. 2. Khu lưu trú: Sau khi dạy xong giáo trình giao tiếp sẽ chính thức kết thúc luôn lớp này. Thời gian dự kiến kết thúc là 2 hoặc 3 tuần nữa. 1 buổi dã ngoại chia tay lớp học sẽ được tổ chức, có thể là ở Thảo Cầm Viên. Trong buổi dã ngoại có thể kết hợp trò chơi đố vui liên quan đến tiếng Anh, việc này sẽ được bàn kỹ hơn ở cuộc họp ban Content vào ngày thứ 7 – 15/9. 3. Lớp thiếu nhi: Danh sách bài soạn đã được soạn xong, giờ chỉ còn hẹn gặp bên đối......

Words: 539 - Pages: 3

Role and Impact of Health Insurance in the Health Delivery System

...mobilizing private funds for improving health care delivery at the macro level. A number of countries are currently experimenting with different approaches. Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was passed into law in 2003 but fully implemented from late 2005. It has already reached impressive coverage levels (Witter & Garshong, 2009). The health system in Ghana before the introduction of NHIS was being financed by what was known at the time as the “cash and carry system” of health delivery. Under this system, patients – even those who had been brought into the hospital on emergencies – were required to pay money at every point of service delivery. Imagine being sent to a hospital with a bleeding accident wound and being asked to pay before a doctor attends to you. A lot of people died because of the cash and carry system. In some cases, lives were lost for the simple reason that friends and relatives were not around to make the required advanced payment. This paper will describe the impact and role of NHIS in the health care delivery system in Ghana and health insurance in some other countries. Finally, I will conclude with importance of health insurance in the health care system in Ghana. The Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was created by the National Health Insurance Act of August 2003, and is one of very few attempts by a sub-Saharan African country to implement a national-level, universal health......

Words: 3275 - Pages: 14

National Health Insurance

...The brief also states that everyone’s cost of care is affected by the uninsured, so therefore to address the cost problem, the uninsured will have to be covered (Carpenter & Axeen, 2008, p. 1). H.R. 676, drafted by Rep. John Conyers, proposes national health insurance (NHI) as a solution which raises many concerns and questions ("Text of H.R. 676 | John Conyers for Congress", n.d., p. 1). Is national health insurance another way of saying ‘socialized medicine’? According to Uew Reinhardt, a respected economist,” socialized medicine refers to health system in which the government owns and operates both the financing of health care and its delivery” (Reinhardt, 2009, p. 1). In contrast, national health insurance is a system in which “…the government pays for care that is delivered in the private (mostly not-for-profit) sector” (Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP), 2012, p.1). NHI, as structured in H.R. 676, does not technically qualify as ‘socialized medicine’, but does recommend a greater degree of government involvement than most Americans are probably comfortable with. Similar to this, there is concern that the government will be running healthcare and making all the decisions. Under NHI, providers must adhere to strict guidelines regarding patient care and cost containment, but patients may choose any participating provider or facility. The bill recognizes that health care is personal and relationships between patient and provider should not be......

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Global Health

...organization of heath care providers. Health care in France is characterized by a national program of social health insurance (NHI), managed almost entirely by the state and publicly financed through income-based contributions from employers and employees and earmarked taxes, called general social contribution (GSC). The GSC rate is based on total income rather than earn income and the rate varies depending on the source of income, for example revenue gained from gambling are facing a higher GSC rate than income earned from an individual’s place of work ( Green, Irvine, Clarke & Bidgood, 2013). According to Green, Irvine, Clarke and Bidgood (2013) earmarked taxes helped to widen the social security system’s financial base and make it less vulnerable to wage and employment fluctuations; employee’s payroll contributions have fallen from 6.8 per cent to a mere 0.85 per cent of gross earnings, and having been almost fully substituted by an earmarked tax. Green et al. (2013) found that together, employer and employee contributions and GSC revenue accounted for 87.1 %of total health insurance revenue in 2010. The rest is made up of state budget allocation and a number of ‘sin taxes’ for example: on tobacco consumption and particularly polluting commercial activities. The turnover of pharmaceutical companies is also taxed. The national health insurance (NHI) covers 87 % of the population, including free health insurance (CMU), which covers the co-payments for all medical goods......

Words: 2011 - Pages: 9

Thesis

...5 Justification of the Study 1.6 Scope of the Study 1.7 Limitation of the study 1.8 Organization of the Study CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Health Care Reforms in Ghana 2.2.1 The Concept of Health Care financing in Ghana 2.3 History and Evolution of National Health Insurance in Ghana 2.3.1 Implementation of Ghana’s Health Insurance Policy 2.4 NHIS Value Chain 2.4.1 Source of funding and fund flow within NHIS 2.5 Definition of key terminologies 2.5.1 Health Insurance 2.5.2 National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) 2.5.3 Healthcare Providers 2.5.4 Quality Health Care 2.5.5 Service Quality Development 2.5.6 Concept of Service Quality 2.5.7 Cost Containment measures and NHIA Restructuring 2.5.7.1 Clinical Audit 2.5.7.2 Monitoring and Evaluation 2.5.7.3 Claims Processing Center 2.5.7.4 Capitation Pilot Program 2.5.7.5 Claims Verification and Payments 2.5.7.6 Internal Audit Unit 2.6 Quality Perspectives 2.6.1 Healthcare quality under the NHIS in Ghana: Perspectives from premium holders 2.6.2 National Health Insurance does not promote quality health care delivery 2.6.3 The NHIS: perceptions and experiences of health care providers and clients Ghana CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Design 3.3 Population of the Study 3.4 Sampling Technique and Sampling Size 3.5 Data Collection Method 3.6 Data Analysis 3.7 Variables of the Study 3.8 Profile of NHIA CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND......

Words: 20760 - Pages: 84

Pharm.

...into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, magnetic, chemical, thermal, manual or otherwise, without the prior consent in writing of the National Health Insurance Scheme. 1 CH E S EME NC © National Health Insurance Scheme ISBN 978 2397 24 5 REVISED October 2012 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction Definition of Key Terms SECTION ONE (PROGRAMMES) * Introduction * Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme * Definition * Roles and responsibilities of Healthcare Facility under the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme * Roles and responsibilities of HMO under the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme * Roles and responsibilities of NHIS under the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme * Organization of Health Services * Guidelines For Public Sector And Organized Private Sector * Membership * Contributions * Waiting Period * Scope of Coverage * Registration of Employers and Employees * Rights and Privileges of Beneficiaries * Procedure for change of primary healthcare provider/addition of dependants. Guidelines For Armed Forces, Police And Other Uniformed Services * Definition * Membership * Contribution * Scope of Coverage Benefit Package (Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Scheme) * Primary Healthcare Level * Secondary Healthcare Level * Tertiary Healthcare Levels * * * Exclusions For FSSHIP * * Referrals Guidelines For Students Of Tertiary......

Words: 38347 - Pages: 154

Nhi Nho Nhan

...TÀI CHÍNH QUỐC TẾ 1 Mục tiêu môn học Giúp Sinh Viên: • Nắm được kiến thức cơ bản về các khía cạnh tài chính-tiền tệ quốc tế • Hiểu và phân tích được các chính sách kinh tế mà các Chính Phủ có thể áp dụng để tác động đến các dòng lưu chuyển tài chính quốc tế. • Đánh giá và phân tích các hoạt động kinh doanh đầu tư trên các thị trường tài chính và tác động đến các dòng lưu chuyển TCQT. Nguyen Thi Hong Vinh Nội dung chính • Cơ sở hạ tầng của các quan hệ tiền tệ tài chính quốc tế • Sự biến động của tỷ giá hối đoái và tác động của nó đến dòng lưu chuyển TCQT • Các lý thuyết về tỷ giá • Sự hình thành và phát triển của các thị trường tài chính quốc tế Nguyen Thi Hong Vinh Giáo trình và tài liệu tham khảo • N.V.Tiến, Giáo trình Tài chính quốc tế, NXB Thống kê, 2010 • Hồ Diệu, Nguyễn Văn Tiến (2001) Giáo trình Tài chính quốc tế. Học viện Ngân hàng. • N.V.Tiến, 2001, “Tài chính quốc tế hiện đại trong nền kinh tế mở”, tái bản lần I, NXB Thống kê • Trần Ngọc Thơ, Nguyễn Ngọc Định (2005) Giáo trình Tài chính Quốc tế. Đại học Kinh tế TP.HCM. • Moosa, I.M., 1998, “International Finance: an analytical approach” The McGraw-Hill Companies, INC., Australia • Maurice D.Levi (1996) International Finance, Mc.Graw-Hill, Inc. • Keith Pilbeam(1998), International Finance, Macmillan, London Nguyen Thi Hong Vinh 2 Phương pháp đánh giá SV • Đánh giá theo quá trình: 30% (lên lớp đầy đủ, tham gia thuyết trình, kiểm tra…) • Bài thi cuối khóa: 70% Hình thức thi: trắc nghiệm,......

Words: 2594 - Pages: 11

Sound Research for Epidemiology Evidence Based Practice

...to provide insight on emerging drug trends and use (NHI, 2014). The population it is affecting is varies from state to state and city to city, it also depends on the particular drug being used. For instance in the case of cocaine users the percent of male versus female varied by state and the age range also varied by state. In Atlanta 58.8 percent of user were male and 41.2 percent were female and 7.0 percent of users where younger than 26 years and 73.7 percent were older than 35 years (NHI, 2013). In the case of heroin users there were 58.0 percent male users in Atlanta and 42.0 percent female users and 30.8 percent of these users were under 26 years of age while 34.3 percent of the users were over the age of 35 years old (NHI, 2013). The potential population that may be affected if this concern is not addressed is the low age of preteen to late years in life due to the availability of illegal drugs on the streets as well as perception drugs obtained via physicians and household medicine cabinets. Risk factors associated with this particular epidemiological concern is aggressive behavior in children and adults, academic failure, lack of parental supervision, drug availability and poverty (NHI, 2003). The public health recommendations I would make to alleviate this epidemiological concern is early intervention, as early as grade school because children under the age of eighteen are high users of marijuana (NHI, 2013). For adult interventions I would have a high...

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Pta Nhi

...Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Ref Page Chapter 11: Planning the Computer Program Slide 1/44 Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Learning Objectives In this chapter you will learn about: § Programs must be planned before they are written § Algorithm § Flowchart § Pseudocode § Plan the logic of a computer program § Commonly used tools for program planning and their use Ref Page 183 Chapter 11: Planning the Computer Program Slide 2/44 Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Purpose of Program Planning § To write a correct program, a programmer must write each and every instruction in the correct sequence § Logic (instruction sequence) of a program can be very complex § Hence, programs must be planned before they are written to ensure program instructions are: § Appropriate for the problem § In the correct sequence Ref Page 183 Chapter 11: Planning the Computer Program Slide 3/44 Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Algorithm § Refers to the logic of a program and a step-by-step description of how to arrive at the solution of a given problem § In order to qualify as an algorithm, a sequence of instructions must have......

Words: 3284 - Pages: 14

Pest Analysis on the Nhi Project

...Health Insurance (NHI). Although this project has its advantage, using the PESTIN Analysis, will help in measuring how these general environments may affect the implementation of the NHI project. There are problems that the Territory would experience or continue to if those factors are not addressed properly. Let’s begin be analyzing each aspect. Body The National Health Insurance System (NHIS) is an initiative of the Government of The British Virgin Islands aimed at providing lifetime health insurance coverage and improving access to health care services for all legal residents. The main features of the Plan are basically being a benefit to the population health benefit. However, looking at the British Virgin Islands NHR supply of technical specifications; there are few questions that are needed to be answered. Nevertheless let’s first discuss the Political/Legal factors. NHI is a project enforced by the government, thus it is part of government regulation. It is mandatory for all legal residents to join. Monthly payments of 3.75 percent of an individual’s salary will be paid by the employer and employee. Seniors will be charged at the same rate and unemployed spouses will be paid for by employed spouse. However, concerns rise from the fact that NHI is mandatory. Thus most individuals are forced to part with their current medical insurance provider due to the fact that their employer could not afford to pay for two medical insurances. Technology within the NHI......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Nhis Problem as a National Issue

...Problems hospitals under Ghana’s national health insurance scheme face hospitals under the Ghana’s National Health Insurance policy faces several problems following its induction. The aim is to delve the assessment of hospital administration under the scheme in regards to compensation, claims and delivery time. This study involves key hospital administrators from accredited hospitals under the National Health Insurance Scheme. The mode of selection of these hospitals administrators is two districts each from five selected regions In Ghana. The districts that will be considered will be one less endowed and one well to do with from each of the selected regions. The mode of data collection will be personal interview with hospital administrators, managers of pharmacy, procurement, accounts and insurance scheme department. Data analysis will be based on prominent themes that will come up during interviews. The framework approach to qualitative data analysis will be used, grouping and incorporating themes that will come up during the interview. Findings with problems confronting hospital administration includes delays of cash flows from the insurance authority; capacity of the scheme insufficient to procure essential drug and other consumables; inability to take initiatives; inadequate human resource; and limited spaces in the hospital to cope with increasing number of service users. The National Health Insurance Scheme has brought many challenges to the organizational and......

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Aabbcc

...th i, t i t ng th i i m trong cu c s ng thì tình yêu l i có m t ý nghĩa riêng i v i các anh chàng. i u này có nghĩa r ng ph n c n ph i t nh táo nh n bi t ngư i àn ông c a mình là ai, và tình yêu có ý nghĩa như th nào i v i anh y. N u b n m t m i khi ph i ch gì chàng nói - theo nhi u cách: 1. ơn gi n nói "Anh yêu em" Th c t , nói ra 3 t này là m t bư c ngo t l n i v i m t s anh chàng. B i nó có ý nghĩa hơn r t nhi u so v i vi c ch ơn thu n b c l c m xúc. V i m t s ngư i, nó như m t b n án chung thân, v i ngư i khác, nó ng hành v i s m o hi m. "Khi nói 3 t ó, tôi c m th y như t toàn b cu c s ng c a mình vào tay cô y. i u ó th t áng s . Ch khi nào th c s tin tư ng và bi t r ng cô y s không v t b tình yêu c a mình, tôi m i dám th t ra nh ng l i ó". Trong trư ng h p này, n i s b khư c t ã l n át t t c . B t ch i là n i au kh ng khi p v i h u h t àn ông, và chính câu nói "Anh yêu em" ư c coi là l i m i h ng ch u t n thương. H u h t các anh chàng c n ph i c m th y th t an toàn trong m i quan h và ch c ch n v c m xúc c a ngư i ph n dành cho mình, thì m i dám nói ra 3 t ó. i3t ó, thì hãy nhìn vào nh ng V i ngư i khác, nói r ng "Anh yêu em" có nghĩa là "Anh ã cam k t và anh s ây làm b t c th gì cho em". V i nhi u àn ông, tình yêu ư c th hi n qua hành ng, vì v y 3 t này như m t l i h a v nh ng gì s ư c th c hi n. Nói ra 3 t này s khi n h c m th y h ch p thu n ó, c ng hi n cho cô y, h tr cô y. N u không làm v y h s ch th y mình như m t k bám gót. Còn khi m t s anh chàng khác nói "Anh......

Words: 1395 - Pages: 6

SềDfdfd

...CHƯƠNG TRÌNH TỔ CHỨC VUI CHƠI NGÀY QUỐC TẾ THIẾU NHI 1-6 Đã đến giờ,kính mời đại biểu,phụ huynh,đoàn viên,đội viên và các cháu thiếu niên nhi đồng vào để ổn định tổ chức. 1.Tuyên bố lý do: Kính thưa quý vị đại biểu! Kính thưa các bậc phụ huynh cùng tất cả các em thiếu nhi. Hòa trong không khí vui tươi của cả nước nhân ngày Quốc tế thiếu nhi 1-6.Hôm nay được sự chỉ đạo của Đảng ủy và UBNN Thị Trấn Trà My tổ chức cho các em vui chơi trong ngày Quốc tế thiếu nhi 1-6,đồng thời động viên các em trong phong trào thi đua học tập,tạo sân chơi lành mạnh cho các em. Nay Đoàn Thanh niên và hội phụ nữ tổ Trung Thị tổ chức ngày Quốc Tế thiếu nhi 1-6. Về dự với chương trình tôi xin trân trọng giới thiệu: -Ban chấp hành Đoàn Thị trấn có (Đ/c): -Bí thư chi Bộ Tổ Trung Thị (Đ/c): -Tổ trưởng dân phố (Ông) : -Trưởng ban công tác mặt trận (Ông) : -Chi hội trưởng Chi Hội phụ nữ (Bà) : -Chi Hội Nông Dân (Ông): Cùng các bậc phụ huynh và đặc biệt là các em đoàn viên,đội viên cùng tất cả các em thiếu niên nhi đồng về dự buổi lễ.Đề nghị chúng ta cùng nhiệt liệt hoan nghênh. 2.Giới thiệu Bí Thư Chi Bộ hoặc tổ trưởng dân phố lên phát biểu. 3.Giới thiệu các em khuyết tật lên nhận quà 4.Sinh hoạt. -Hát tập thể 1-2 bài hát. -Trò Chơi: 5.Bế mạc...

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Nhi Hai Kuch Bhi

...BLTE-9e SAMPLE ANSWER FOR END-OF-CHAPTER HYPOTHETICAL QUESTION WITH SAMPLE ANSWER CHAPTER 2: ETHICS AND BUSINESS DECISION MAKING 2–2 Hypothetical Question with Sample Answer Shokun Steel Co. owns many steel plants. One of its plants is much older than the others. Equipment at that plant is outdated and inefficient, and the costs of production at that plant are now two times higher than at any of Shokun’s other plants. The company cannot raise the price of steel because of competition, both domestic and international. The plant employs more than a thousand workers and is located in Twin Firs, Pennsylvania, which has a population of about 45,000. Shokun is contemplating whether to close the plant. What factors should the firm consider in making its decision? Will the firm violate any ethical duties if it closes the plant? Analyze these questions from the two basic perspectives on ethical reasoning discussed in this chapter. Sample Answer: Ethical and other dilemmas faced by businesspersons are rarely clear-cut choices between good and bad alternatives. This problem is no exception. The questions in the problem indicate some of the issues that businesspersons in such situations should consider. But potentially higher profits and possible negative publicity are not the only considerations—decisions made by businesspersons can have wide-ranging implications. When a firm takes advantage of cheaper overseas labor, it must lay off domestic workers or even close a......

Words: 343 - Pages: 2

Toyota

...Nhi Nguyen 1 Toyota Communicating Through Crisis INTRODUCTION Since September 2009, the famous vehicle manufacture Toyota has suffered a severe crisis due to unintended quality problems in its cars. In responding to the crisis, Toyota has recalled more than 10 million vehicles worldwide for accelerator pedal, carpet and floor mat flaws that may cause unintended acceleration. This catastrophe has led to millions of dollars in settlements and U.S. fines, as well as hundreds of product liability lawsuits against the automaker, threatening the company’s previous reputation of good quality cars, as well as the brand image built up over time. This research paper aims to elaborate on the Toyota crisis in order to understand why Toyota faces an escalating crisis and how they deal with the crisis, and evoke lessons from Toyota scandal. ABOUT TOYOTA MOTOR CORP. Toyota is one of the world’s largest automakers, based in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. Since its establishment in 1937 in Japan, Toyota has a long history of building safety, reliable and high quality vehicles. Today, the company manufactures vehicles and parts at 53 production sites in 27 countries and regions around the globe, with a variety of sub-brands categories such as Lexus, Yaris, Corolla, Camry, Toyota trucks, and the world’s first gas/electric hybrid Prius, etc. (toyota.com). Its vehicles have been well known for quality, reliability and fuel efficiency. According to the article, “Accelerating into trouble,” from the......

Words: 3352 - Pages: 14