Nose

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ORGANIZACIÓN Y ESTRUCTURAS
ORGANIZACIONALES
Unidad 3. Diseño de la estructura organizacional Parte 1
Por Roberto Azuara

Abril de 2013.

DESAFÍOS DE DISEÑO

ORGANIZACIONAL
Los desafíos a los que se enfrentan los gerentes al crear una organización que les permitan controlar sus actividades para lograr las metas, es diseñar una estructura que maximice la efectividad de su organización a través de: diferenciación, vincular y coordinar las actividades organizacionales, determinar quién tomará las decisiones, y el tercero decidir qué tipos de mecanismos son los más apropiados para controlar tareas y papeles específicos de los empleados. Las decisiones que toman los gerentes al intentar resolver los cuatro desafío determinan cuan eficientemente funciona su organización.

DESAFÍO DEL DISEÑO ORGANIZACIONAL

Diferenciación

Equilibrio

Integración

Centralización

Equilibrio

Descentralización

LA DIFERENCIACIÓN Y LA INTEGRACIÓN:

ELEMENTOS CLAVE DE LA ESTRUCTURA
La verdadera razón por la que existen las organizaciones es porque pueden llevar a cabo tareas de forma más eficaz y eficiente que los individuos trabajando solos. Todas las organizaciones deben dividir su trabajo en unidades llamadas tareas. A esta división se le llama diferenciación. En la mayoría de las organizaciones actuales es físicamente imposible y económicamente inviable que un individuo realice todas las tareas. Para que una organización lleve a cabo esta misión de manera más eficiente, dividirá su trabajo en muchas tareas y posteriormente serán asignadas entre los trabajadores. De esta manera los trabajadores se podrán especializar en la tarea designada de forma más específica. Por ejemplo, una organización grande como General Motors ha diferenciado las tareas para que los miembros de la cadena de ensamblaje hagan el montaje de los coches; los administrativos archiven…...

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