Psychology Stages

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By crisvie
Words 1034
Pages 5
I. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: THEORIES

A. Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development * Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old). The infant builds an understanding of himself or herself and reality (and how things work) through interactions with the environment. It is able to differentiate between itself and other objects. Learning takes place via assimilation (the organization of information and absorbing it into existing schema) and accommodation (when an object cannot be assimilated and the schemata have to be modified to include the object. * Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 4). The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Objects are classified in simple ways, especially by important features. * Concrete operations (ages 7 to 11). As physical experience accumulates, accommodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. * Formal operations (beginning at ages 11 to 15). Cognition reaches its final form. By this stage, the person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. He or she is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. His or her ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult.

B. Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

Stage | Age Range | Erogenous zone | Consequences of Psychologic Fixation | Oral | Birth–1 year | Mouth | Orally aggressive: chewing gum Orally Passive: smoking, eating, kissing, oral sexual practices
Oral stage fixation might result in a passive, gullible, immature, manipulative personality.--------------------------- | Anal | 1–3 years | Bowel and bladder elimination | Anal retentive: Obsessively organized, or excessively neat
Anal expulsive: reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized,--------------------------- | Phallic…...

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