Quantum Computer

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By argirakis
Words 488
Pages 2
For the last fifty years computers have grown faster, smaller, and more powerful, transforming and benefiting our society in ways too much to count. But like any exponential explosion of resources, this growth known as Moore's law must soon come to an end. Research has already begun on what comes after our current computing revolution. This research has discovered the possibility for an entirely new type of computer, one that operates according to the laws of quantum physics, a quantum computer.
A quantum computer would not just be a traditional computer built out of different parts, but a machine that would exploit the laws of quantum physics to perform certain information processing tasks in a better and more efficient manner. One demonstration of this potential is that quantum computers would break the codes that protect our modern computing infrastructure the security of every Internet transaction would be broken if a quantum computer were to be built. This potential has made quantum computing a national security concern. Yet at the same time, quantum computers will also revolutionize large parts of science in a more benevolent way. Simulating large quantum systems, something a quantum computer can easily do, is not practically possible on a traditional computer.
A technology of quantum computers is also very different. For operation, quantum computer uses quantum bits (qubits). Qubit has a quaternary nature. Quantum mechanic’s laws are completely different from the laws of a classical physics. A qubit can exist not only in the states corresponding to the logical values 0 or 1 as in the case of a classical bit, but also in a superposition state.
A qubit is a bit of information that can be both zero and one simultaneously (Superposition state). Thus, a computer working on a qubit rather than a standard bit can make calculations using both values…...

Similar Documents

Quantum Computing - the Qubit

...Quantum computing - The potential and complications of the Qubit Introduction A Quantum computer (QC) is a computer that utilises quantum phenomena to perform operations on data and increase the computational power beyond that which is attainable by traditional computers. QCs differ from traditional computers, which use transistors and diodes to store information in binary form (1 or 0), by using quantum properties to represent data and perform operations (Rice University, 2000). While no QCs currently exist they have the potential to overtake current computers in terms of size and computing capabilities. The creation of a fully functional QC would change the way people communicate and the encryption methods used to secure valuable data. This report will discuss the basic unit of the QC, the qubit, and the potential a working QC has while also touching on the complications inherent in trying to manipulate objects at a quantum level and whether the quantum phenomena used are necessary to improve computational power or if merely making The Qubit and the Bit The basic unit of computing is called the bit and is usually represented by a transistor or diode; the transistor could represent a 0 while off and a 1 while charged. By using 8 bits (8 bits make up a byte) together it is possible to create 256 different combinations that can be used to represent text and instructions for a computer to run. When using 8-bit binary code the most commonly used format is the American......

Words: 2247 - Pages: 9

Quantum Quandaries

...Quantum Quandaries by Heath Miller December 8th 2012 What if you could transfer a file faster than the speed of light on a connection with air-tight security? You could connect to a computer anywhere around the world in the blink of an eye and never have to worry about malicious activity. It seems impossible, right? Not necessarily. It could actually be done by using a quantum network. A true quantum network would be much faster than any connection we could implement with our current telecommunications hardware. In fact, a signal transferred over a true quantum connection wouldn’t take time to transfer whatsoever. It would literally arrive instantly, and would be sent using physical properties that dictate the mechanics of the entire universe. The implications of harnessing these phenomena are astounding. In a 2011 article written in by Lydia Leavitt it states that, “Researchers at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute have discovered what might be the key to completely secure data transfer, keeping particles ‘entangled’ for up to an hour. Until now, the link between two entangled systems could only be maintained for a fraction of a second. This development could enable a direct link between two systems of communication” (engadget.com, N.P.). This could mean incredible things for our communication systems. Don’t think that speed and convenience aren’t the only benefits we would reap either. There would be countless new tools and abilities that......

Words: 1599 - Pages: 7

Quantum Computer by Quantum Mathematics

...QUANTUM COMPUTER BY QUANTUM MATHEMATICS Research Assistant: Quantum Mathematics Research and Development Private Limited. HaritaBhargava haritabhargava@ymail.com Abstract-. India gives its greatest contribution toward Intellectual property in form of SANHKYA YOGA. We know very new name of INDIA by BHARAT IT gives us necessary clue. BHA = LIGHT + KNOWLEDGERATA = DEVOTED So BHARAT means DEVOTED to LIGHT & KNOWLEDGE. The model for which modern science search is already available in SANKHYA YOGA. Sankhya yoga like INTELLECTUALPROPERTY is unparallel in the world. Sankhya is a philosophical doctrine which counts the categories which constitute this world. Computer science gives it the name “DIGITAL DECADE”. Cosmology presents it in name of “UNCERTANITY PRINCIPLE” IT is being researched in the form of Quantum (wave & particle) in physics department. In future, it will be known as Medical compiler. [R4] Terms and condition : INNOVATION – RESPECT IT Under the WTO provision of TRIPS I. INTRODUCTION Article 8.1 - That agreement is to be put into effect by member countries through implementing laws. The provision of the agreement is addressed to member countries. It does not directly modify the legal sanction of private parties, who cannot claim rights based on the agreement until they are translated into national law. Article 9.2 - The concept of fair use seeks to balance granting authors sufficient incentives to create new works against the interest of the public and......

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Quantum Computer by Quantum Mathematics

...QUANTUM COMPUTER BY QUANTUM MATHEMATICS Research Assistant: Quantum Mathematics Research and Development Private Limited. HaritaBhargava haritabhargava@ymail.com Abstract-. India gives its greatest contribution toward Intellectual property in form of SANHKYA YOGA. We know very new name of INDIA by BHARAT IT gives us necessary clue. BHA = LIGHT + KNOWLEDGERATA = DEVOTED So BHARAT means DEVOTED to LIGHT & KNOWLEDGE. The model for which modern science search is already available in SANKHYA YOGA. Sankhya yoga like INTELLECTUALPROPERTY is unparallel in the world. Sankhya is a philosophical doctrine which counts the categories which constitute this world. Computer science gives it the name “DIGITAL DECADE”. Cosmology presents it in name of “UNCERTANITY PRINCIPLE” IT is being researched in the form of Quantum (wave & particle) in physics department. In future, it will be known as Medical compiler. [R4] Terms and condition : INNOVATION – RESPECT IT Under the WTO provision of TRIPS I. INTRODUCTION Article 8.1 - That agreement is to be put into effect by member countries through implementing laws. The provision of the agreement is addressed to member countries. It does not directly modify the legal sanction of private parties, who cannot claim rights based on the agreement until they are translated into national law. Article 9.2 - The concept of fair use seeks to balance granting authors sufficient incentives to create new works against the interest of the public and......

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Quantum Computing: Overview

...available to the world is a triumph mainly attributable to breakthroughs such as those given by Tim Berners-Lee with his introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 1990’s, and constant developments in computer science and computational power made possible through advances in microprocessing capabilities which seem to be paralleling closely with forecasts given by Moore’s Law (Greenemeir, 2009). Moore’s Law, which is not exactly a law, is an estimation regarding the progression deemed possible in an integrated circuit. It was postulated by one of the founders of Intel, Dr. Gordon Moore, who stated that the number of transistors placed on a circuit will double roughly every 18 months (Colwell, 2013), and the capacity to follow this trend will end at a critical point when transistors become so close together that the manifestations of quantum mechanics will begin to transpire (Tally, 2012). Classical computers have undoubtedly reshaped our world and have provided incalculable progress unforeseen through the eyes of some of history’s greatest academics. Early computers were mammoth-sized mechanical devices utilized by the military for processing information that would take humans hours by manual calculation alone (Watson, 2012). Computers, in the days prior to digital computers, were actual people who would literally compute information for whatever their task or job may have been. Though these positions were often filled with clever mathematicians, their capacity to compute......

Words: 5884 - Pages: 24

Quantum Theory

...Quantum Theory Electrons behave like particles in some experiments, and like waves in others. The electron's 'wave/particle duality' has no real analogy in the everyday world. The quantum theory that describes the behavior of electrons is a cornerstone in modern chemistry. Quantum theory can be used to explain why atoms are stable, why things have the color they do, why the periodic table has the structure it does, why chemical bonds form, and why different elements combine in different ratios with each other. Light and electrons both behave quantum mechanically. To understand the experimental basis for the quantum theory, we have to begin our discussion with light. Waves * Waves are an oscillation that moves outward from a disturbance (ripples moving away from a pebble dropped into a pond) Properties of waves | property | definition | symbol | SI units | velocity | distance traveled per second | c | m/s | amplitude | peak height above midline | A | varies with type of wave | wavelength | peak-to-peak distance | | m | frequency | number of peaks passing by per second | | s-1 (called Hertz) | | * relationship between frequency and wavelength * distance per cycle × cycles per second = distance per second  = c * examples * The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s. Humans can hear sounds with wavelengths between 17 m and 17 mm. What is the highest sound frequency that is audible? * interference * constructive......

Words: 4461 - Pages: 18

Quantum Strategy at Apple Inc

...Organizational Dynamics (2013) 42, 92—99 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/orgdyn Quantum Strategy at Apple Inc Loizos Heracleous Over the last 15 years, Apple Inc has revolutionized the personal electronics, telecom, computer and media industries through a string of blockbuster products that offer unique, designer, integrated customer experiences. In the process, the company has helped to accelerate the blurring of industry boundaries through the spread of devices that offer convergent technologies, and to position itself so that it exerts significant power over both consumers and industry players, with outstanding performance results. Apple became the most valuable listed company, with a market value of US$623 billion in August 2012, and has gathered the highest accumulation of cash reserves ($121 billion in September 2012) of any listed company. It regularly achieves net margins of above 20 percent in industries where most competitors achieve single-digit margins. Its net margin was 26.7 percent during 2012, having increased from 23.9 percent in 2011 and 21.5 percent in 2010. During the same period, Apple’s revenues increased from US$65.2 billion in 2010 to US $108.2 billion in 2011 and to US$156.5 billion in 2012. The chief architect of the business model and value system that led to this exceptional performance is widely acknowledged to be the late Steve Jobs. With Jobs’ passing in October 2011, many have......

Words: 5440 - Pages: 22

Quantum Computer

...Quantum Computer August 13, 2014 Dr. Laura Wilson Quantum Computer As we progress in our technological world where everyone is interested in the next iPhone or Samsung Galaxy, quantum computers are still moving forward. It seems that only the smartest "nerds" seem to care and understand this wonder. What if all of the theories, concepts, and everything else that makes up what quantum computers are and will be, a way to have it so that everyone can understand. The way that quantum computers can be divided is into three main areas: quantum physics, quantum bits (qubits), and their future goals. To better understand how quantum computers work, you need to start with what clearly defines a quantum computer: "A quantum computer is a computer design which uses the principles of quantum physics to increase the computational power beyond what is attainable by a traditional computer" (Jones, 2014, p. 1). Quantum computers use two fundamental principles of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement. Quantum superposition is where the state of a physical system exists in all possible states at the same time. Then when the physical system is only one state is give to the collection device. A good example of this is the famous Schrödinger's Cat, a thought experiment purposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1935, where Schrödinger talks about having a cat in a closed box with a vial of poisonous acid with a hammer that will break the vial if any radioactivity is detected (Schrödinger...

Words: 1328 - Pages: 6

Quantum

...ELEC 9705 Quantum Devices Session 1, 2014 Assignment 1 Student ID:3402048 Name:Weitao Tang Part 1 – Controlling the spins of a hydrogen atom 1.1 4-dimentional Hilbert space: plus_plus = plus_minus = 0 1 0 0 minus_plus = 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 minus_minus = 0 0 0 1 Spin operator of electron: Ix = 0 0.5000 0 0 0.5000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5000 0 0 0.5000 0 Iy = 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i Iz = 0.5000 0 0 -0.5000 0 0 0 0 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0 0 0 0 Spin operators of proton: Sx = 0 0 0.5000 0 0 -0.5000 0.5000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5000 0.5000 0 0 0.5000 0 0 Sy = 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i Sz = 0.5000 0 0 0 0 0.5000 0 0 0 0 -0.5000 0 0 0 0 -0.5000 1.2 The values of eigenvectors: phi_1 = phi_2 = 0 1 0.7071 0 -0.7071 0 0 0 phi_3 = phi_4 = 0 0.7071 0.7071 0 0 0 0 1 The values of eigenvalues: E_1 = E_2......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Quantum Tarot

...QUANTUM PHYSICS, SYNCHRONICITY, AND THE TAROT Just about anyone who has ever done a tarot reading and marveled at its accuracy has wondered, "How does it work?"  The answer to this question depends greatly on our personal beliefs about spirituality, philosophy, and the way the world works, and there are many possible theories.  On one end of the spectrum, many tarotists believe their readings are guided by a conscious force, whether that be God/dess, an angel or spiritual guide, or one's higher self.  At the other end of the spectrum are tarotists of the psychological school, who believe that tarot cards can only reflect projections of what is in the mind of the client (and the reader), and who use a more interactive style of reading similar to counseling. Then there are the in between possibilities, which form the subject of this article – those who may not believe that a conscious force is guiding each reading, but who nevertheless believe there is more going on than simple psychological projection. I confess to falling in this middle ground.  Since most of my readings are conducted via e­mail, without the client even seeing the cards until after the reading is completed, there is little possibility that her projections are influencing my reading, nor that I am reading subtle body­language clues that help me interpret the cards. Yet, I receive so much positive feedback for my readings, even for those that are very detailed and specific, that I cannot believe...

Words: 2528 - Pages: 11

Quantum Electodynamics

...QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS What is quantum electrodynamics? Sociology Anna C Jean – Guillaume Martin LCSW March 7, 2015 Professor Dr. Beverly Jackson Quantum electrodynamics (QED): Is the e area of physics devoted to the study of the interaction of matter (quantum particles) and light. It generally concerns itself with the wave (or field) aspects of nature. At the level of the quantum realm, QED demonstrates that everything is connected. The world is a vast web of relationships, with everything affecting everything else. The brain, blood, and bone of the body give way to invisible forces, fields, and particles whose interactions underlie not only the human body but all of matter. Molecules give way to atoms that dissolve into subatomic particles, so that our bodies are governed not only by the laws of everyday chemistry but also by the paradoxical principles of the physical body. History shows that most truly fundamental leaps forward in scientific understanding are shunned at first. Truly new insights are sometimes too radical an overturning of accepted theory or too threatening to business or academic interests to be evaluated impartially. You have only to think of germ theory, tectonic plate theory, quantum electrodynamics, and string theory to know that even ideas that are accepted widely in our day were dismissed as crackpot ideas by a previous generation of scientists. Over the years, as physicists’ explored wave-particle duality, the study of quantum......

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Quantum

...Seminar Synopsis Topic Introduction to Quantum Computer Abstract Overview: A classical computer has a memory made up of bits, where each bit is represented by either a one or a zero. A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. What is qubits A single qubit can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states; a pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three qubits in any superposition of 8 states. In general, a quantum computer with n qubits can be in an arbitrary superposition of up to 2^n different states simultaneously (this compares to a normal computer that can only be in one of these 2^n states at any one time). A quantum computer operates by setting the qubits in a controlled initial state that represents the problem at hand and by manipulating those qubits with a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates. The sequence of gates to be applied is called a quantum algorithm. The calculation ends with a measurement, collapsing the system of qubits into one of the 2^n pure states, where each qubit is zero or one, decomposing into a classical state. The outcome can therefore be at most n classical bits of information. Quantum algorithms are often non-deterministic, in that they provide the correct solution only with a certain known probability. Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Quantum

...The word "quantum" comes from the Latin "quantus", meaning "how much". "Quanta", short for "quanta of electricity" (electrons) was used in a 1902 article on the photoelectric effect by Philipp Lenard, who credited Hermann von Helmholtz for using the word in the area of electricity. However, the word quantum in general was well known before 1900.[2] It was often used by physicians, such as in the term quantum satis. Both Helmholtz and Julius von Mayer were physicians as well as physicists. Helmholtz used "quantum" with reference to heat in his article[3] on Mayer's work, and indeed, the word "quantum" can be found in the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics by Mayer in his letter[4] dated July 24, 1841. Max Planck used "quanta" to mean "quanta of matter and electricity",[5] gas, and heat.[6] In 1905, in response to Planck's work and the experimental work of Lenard (who explained his results by using the term "quanta of electricity"), Albert Einstein suggested that radiation existed in spatially localized packets which he called "quanta of light" ("Lichtquanta").[7] The concept of quantization of radiation was discovered in 1900 by Max Planck, who had been trying to understand the emission of radiation from heated objects, known as black-body radiation. By assuming that energy can only be absorbed or released in tiny, differential, discrete packets he called "bundles" or "energy elements",[8] Planck accounted for the fact that certain objects change colour when......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Quantum Computers

...already have to deal with problems which classical computers are unable to solve, for example, simulations of atomic quantum systems. For this very reason researchers all around the world started to put their efforts into creating a fully functional quantum computer. HOW DO QUANTUM COMPUTERS WORK? As you might know, classical computers operate in bits, which can have one of the two values at the time: either 1 or 0. However, quantum computers operate in quantum bits or qubits, which are usually represented by such particles like atoms, ions, electrons, and photons. All of these particles have a property called superposition, which means that they can be of two states at the same time, that is a qubit can represent both 1 and 0 at the same time. To put it simply we can illustrate superposition with a famous physicist’s Erwin Schrodinger’s thought experiment: if we put a living cat in a closed box rigged with a device that can randomly release poison (there is equal probability that it will release and won’t) we can say that until we open the box to check the state of the cat, it’s both dead and alive at the same time. And that’s the whole reason why quantum computers are superior to classical ones. For example, a 3 bit register can save only one of the 8 (23) possible bit combinations at the time, but a quantum register of the same size could save all of the combinations at the same time. To take another example, only 500 qubit quantum register could save a number of......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Business Implications of Quantum Computing

...Business Implications Quantum computing has been explained and even the potential of this technology has been explained. Now the question that arises is, what business implications will quantum computing have? The main implications that were mentioned were security and speed. Security is mentioned when people began talking about computing. When quantum computing comes into the realm of computing it becomes an even bigger issue. The leap in computing power may create a big gap between businesses equipped with the latest technologies and those who aren’t (Raisinghani, 2001). Businesses will have to take extra measures to make sure that their systems have the latest security. Because quantum computing is sensitive to changes in the environment, it can make it a lot easier for hackers to damage or disable systems (Raisinghani, 2001). Security within businesses will have to increase which means that internet access may become stricter just to make sure that the businesses’ information is safe. Even though people may think it is too much, the business has to make sure that they protect themselves or they could be in a heed of trouble. A new position may even need to be created to help tack the security issue. An Information Security Manager may be created help with security to make sure that the business is doing the best they can to protect themselves (Raisinghani, 2001). It may not be a new hire but someone who just changes positions for a time period until the business feels...

Words: 583 - Pages: 3