In: Business and Management

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To understand the information contained in financial statements with a view to know the strength or weaknesses of the firm and to make forecast about the future prospects of the firm and thereby enabling the financial analyst to take different decisions regarding the operations of the firm.


Fundamental Analysis has a very broad scope. One aspect looks at the general (qualitative) factors of a company. The other side considers tangible and measurable factors (quantitative). This means crunching and analyzing numbers from the financial statements. If used in conjunction with other methods, quantitative analysis can produce excellent results.

Ratio analysis isn't just comparing different numbers from the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. It's comparing the number against previous years, other companies, the industry, or even the economy in general. Ratios look at the relationships between individual values and relate them to how a company has performed in the past, and might perform in the future.


A ratio is one figure express in terms of another figure. It is a mathematical yardstick that measures the relationship two figures, which are related to each other and mutually interdependent. Ratio is express by dividing one figure by the other related figure. Thus a ratio is an expression relating one number to another. It is simply the quotient of two numbers. It can be expressed as a fraction or as a decimal or as a pure ratio or in absolute figures as “ so many times”. As accounting ratio is an expression relating two figures or accounts or two sets of account heads or group contain in the financial statements.


Ratio analysis is the method or process by which the relationship of items or…...

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...|FINAL PROJECT RATIOS | LIQUIDITY AND ACTIVIY Current Ratio measures the ability of a firm to pay its short-term debts. The formula is: |Current Ratio |= |Current Assets | | | |Current Liabilities | Quick (Acid-Test) Ratio measures the immediate ability of a firm to pay its short-term debts. The formula is: |Current Ratio |= |Cash + Marketable Securities + Current Receivables | | | |Current Liabilities | Accruals ratio measures the amount of accounts receivables to cover the accounts payable. The formula is: |Accruals Ratio |= |Accounts Receivables | | | |Accounts Payables | Cash Flow Yield measures ability to generate operating cash flows in relation to NI (the most important liquidity ratio). The formula is: |Cash Flow Yield |= |Net cash provided by | | ...

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...Profitability ratios measure the company's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return Gross margin, Gross profit margin or Gross Profit Rate[7][8] [pic] OR [pic] Operating margin, Operating Income Margin, Operating profit margin or Return on sales (ROS)[8][9] [pic] Note: Operating income is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses, but it is also sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit.[10] This is true if the firm has no non-operating income. (Earnings before interest and taxes / Sales[11][12]) Profit margin, net margin or net profit margin[13] [pic] Return on equity (ROE)[13] [pic] Return on investment (ROI ratio or Du Pont Ratio)[6] [pic] Return on assets (ROA)[14] [pic] Return on assets Du Pont (ROA Du Pont)[15] [pic] Return on Equity Du Pont (ROE Du Pont) [pic] Return on net assets (RONA) [pic] Return on capital (ROC) [pic] Risk adjusted return on capital (RAROC) [pic] OR [pic] Return on capital employed (ROCE) [pic] Note: this is somewhat similar to (ROI), which calculates Net Income per Owner's Equity Cash flow return on investment (CFROI) [pic] Efficiency ratio [pic] Net gearing [pic] Basic Earnings Power Ratio[16] ......

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...The Use of Ratio Analysis Ratio analysis is a tool used by individuals to conduct a quantitative analysis of information in a company's financial statements. Ratios are calculated from current year numbers and are then compared to previous years, other companies, the industry, or even the economy to judge the performance of the company. Ratio analysis is predominately used by proponents of fundamental analysis to judge the performance of the company. Analyzing ratios is used to evaluate a company's present performance and its possible future performance. In a fact, interpretation of different accounting ratio lets the researcher fully understand the financial condition and performance of a business concern. Ratio itself is the comparison of one figure to another relevant figure. (http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/ratioanalysis.asp) There are many ratios that you can use to analyze the financial health of a business. In this paper I will discuss four financial performance areas that I think are worth analyzing: Liquidity, profitability, solvency, and efficiency. I will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of using these ratios. First of all, Liquidity is the ability of the firm to convert assets into cash. It is also called marketability or short-term solvency. The liquidity of a business firm is usually of particular interest to its short-term creditors since the liquidity of the firm measures its ability to pay those creditors. Several financial ratios measure the......

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