Social and Demographic Changes

In: Social Issues

Submitted By PeterzTrnavy
Words 1365
Pages 6
MEDZINÁRODNÝ MARKETING - ESEJ
SOCIO - DEMOGRAFICKÉ ZMENY
MIGRÁCIA

Pojem migrácia definujeme ako zmenu miesta trvalého pobytu za hranice určitej územnej jednotky; premiestňovanie obyvateľov v území spojené so zmenou bydliska. Niekedy sa tu hovorí o fyzickej alebo zemepisnej mobilite. Migrácia ako prvok nie je fenoménom iba posledných rokov, či desaťročí, ale bola súčasťou našich životov i na samotnom počiatku ľudstva.
Ľudia odnepamäti migrovali tam, kde mali lepšie životné podmienky. Či už to bolo územie bohaté na vodné zdroje, na úrodnú pôdu - vhodnú na pestovanie poľnohospodárskych plodín alebo oblasť bohatá na prírodné zdroje. V týchto regiónoch potom vznikali osídlenia alebo väčšie sídla, kde hustota obyvateľstva bola vyššia ako v iných častiach krajiny. Prekvital tu obchod, výmena tovarov, úroveň poskytovaných služieb, spoločenský, kultúrny ale i ekonomický život občanov bol na vyššej úrovni.
Charakteristiky a základné znaky migrácie za stovky rokov zmenili svoju formu a štruktúru, ale určite nie podstatu. Ľudia i naďalej migrujú tam, kde podmienky na život, prácu, vzdelanie a iné primárne aspekty sú priaznivejšie. Je to totiž prirodzená vlastnosť človeka. V tejto práci by som sa rád zameral nielen na príčiny migrácie, ale i jej vlastnosti a dôsledky na svetovú ekonomiku v súčastnosti, teda v 21. storočí.
V rámci všeobecného delenia môžeme migráciu deliť do 4 skupín:
1. Migrácia (sťahovanie) obyvateľstva: také priestorové pohyby, pri ktorých obyvateľ mení svoje trvalé bydlisko.
2. Dočasná zmena pobytu: obyvateľ zmení bydlisko na určitý vymedzený čas, avšak miesto jeho trvalého pobytu zostáva nezmenené
3. Dochádzka do zamestnania a do škôl: pravidelný pohyb na rovnakej trase a v rovnakom čase. Je Je charakterizovaný stereotypnou pravidelnosťou a zúčastňuje sa ho najviac ľudí.
4. Nepravidelné dočasné pohyby (turbulencia): sú vykonávané za účelom…...

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