The Social Climate During Margaret Mead Cross Cultural Study

In: Social Issues

Submitted By lativia229
Words 1033
Pages 5
The Social Climate During Margaret Mead Cross Cultural Study
Lativia Harris
Thomas University

The Social Climate During Margaret Mead Cross Cultural Study
Margaret Mead was Anthropologist who educated and devoted her life to studying the human behavior of various cultures during the 1920’s. Mead work shed a light on different cultural norms and the difficulties of being apart of that culture. One of Mead most notable works and best seller was Coming of Age in Samoa., she published in 1928 after staying in Samon from 1925-1926 to research sexual behavior. Mead, research brought a social consciousness to the world during a time when it was difficult. For instance, during the decade of Mead field work there were many events taking place: The manufacture of cars, Harlem Renaissance begins (jazz and ragtime music), fashions, flappers (a term used to describe young girls), movie stars, sex symbols in movies and novels, prohibition begins in the United States, women granted the right to vote in the United States fashion and music and Sigmund Freud work on sex series. 1920’s has often been referred to as the “Roaring Twenties” during this time the United States were discovering what it was like to be one of the world ‘s wealthiest country. The 1920’s had a new influences on peoples' lifestyles that change the culture of the 1920’s. According to an article by Jennifer Roseenberg (n.d.), a 20th century history expert states the following:
In the 1920s, a new woman was born. She smoked, drank, danced, and voted. She cut her hair, wore make-up, and went to petting parties. She was giddy and took risks. She was a flapper. Nearly every article of clothing was trimmed down and lightened in order to make movement easier. The new, energetic dances of the Jazz Age, required women to be able to move freely. The 1920s was the Jazz Age and one of the most…...

Similar Documents

Japanese Companies in Germany- a Case Study in Cross-Cultural Management

...Japanese Companies in Germany: A Case Study in Cross-Cultural Management JAMES R. LINCOLN, HAROLD R. KERBO, and ELKE WITT'ENHAGEN* From a series of qualitative interviews with Japanese managers and German managers and workers in thirty-one Japanese-owned companies in the Dusseldorf region of western Germany, this article discusses differences in cultural patterns and organizational styles between the German and Japanese employees and the problems these pose for communication, cooperation, and morale. First, we deal with cultural contrasts: language issues, interpersonal styles (personability and politeness), and norms regarding the taking of responsibility. Second, we examine the impact on cross-nationality relations of established organizational practice: for example, German specialism vs. Japanese generalism; direct and vertical vs. indirect and incremental decision making. We also discuss efforts by these firms to find compromise systems that would meet the needs and interests of both sides. The third focus is the reactions of Japanese companies in North Rhine-Westphalia to German unions, works councils, and codetermination regulations. In the labor view, Japanese firms overall do no better or worse than comparable German firms. Japanese direct investment in Western economies is concentrated in North America and the United Kingdom. In consequence, a rich journalistic and scholarly literature examines the Japanese experience in the Anglo-American countries, the......

Words: 10081 - Pages: 41

Cross Cultural

...6.0 Culture and Marketing 6.1 Marketing in a cross-cultural environment As the largest Western European country, France is a nation that takes immense pride in its history and prominent culture. Such cultural identities play a crucial role in French business culture, where appropriate conduct, mutual trust and understanding are the key to an organizations success. There are some problem to adapt the product and marketing with the people in France. That is why some intercultural marketing approach is needed. Culture Culture Management Management Organizations Organizations Communication Communication Marketer within Cross-Border Market Marketer within Cross-Border Market Figure 6.1: Marketing in a cross-cultural environment Source: Browaeys & Price, 2011 (page 229) In a company, marketing is one of important things to make sure the production’s activities are always proceeding. In a textbook written by Browaeys & Price (2011) had stated that, Wall and Rees (2004) divide marketing activities as follows: 1. Market analysis with at least three elements, which are environment analysis, buyer behavior and market research 2. Marketing strategy. Once a market has been scanned using the above tools, the company has to develop a strategy to give meaning and direction to its marketing activities. The strategies that often used are market segmentation and marketing mix. However, these approaches are no longer......

Words: 2498 - Pages: 10

A Cross-Cultural Study of Daily Communication Between the Vietnamese and Americans

...Author’s name: Le Thi Tuyet Minh A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF DAILY COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE VIETNAMESE AND AMERICANS OUTLINE Introduction Vietnamese - American cross-cultural communication: 1. Theories of intercultural communication 2. Vietnamese vs. American perceptions and communication styles 2.1 Vietnamese vs. American perceptions 2.1.1 Individualistic vs. collectivistic cultures 2.1.2 High- vs. low-context cultures 2.1.3 Face-saving 2.2. Vietnamese vs. American communication styles 2.2.1 Ways of greetings 2.2.2 Topics for conversation 2.2.3 Silence and Eye contact 2.2.4 Touching 2.2.5 Other nonverbal gestures 3. Cross-cultural communication strategies Conclusion Introduction Cross-cultural encounters have long provided a great source of interest for research. Globalization has increased contact between people from different cultures, but it has not evened out cultural differences as much as expected. The divergence of perspectives continues to survive in communication between people from different cultures such as Vietnamese and American. This paper aims to address the issues of intercultural communication between the Vietnamese and Americans in daily life. By juxtaposing the main traits of the two cultures while some common cultural misinterpretations are listed, I wish to give a comprehensive look at the Vietnamese- American...

Words: 2793 - Pages: 12

Effects of Social Media in Cross Cultural Marketing

...Effects of Social Media in Cross Cultural Marketing Studying the Case of Cross-Cultural Management Shaima Alwardi Table of Contents 1. Title ........................................................................................................................................ 3 2. Background ............................................................................................................................ 4 3. Presentation and Critical Review of the Literature and Theories used .................................... 6 4. Project Proposal and Objectives ...........................................................................................11 5. Research Plan and Methodology ..........................................................................................13 6. Empirical Facts and Finding ..................................................................................................17 7. Analysis and Discussion........................................................................................................18 8. Overall Conclusion ................................................................................................................21 Reference .................................................................................................................................23 Appendix ...................................................................................................................................25 Effects of......

Words: 5798 - Pages: 24

Cross Cultural Management

...assignment, a conscience effort has been made to understand the concepts of “Cross Cultural Management” (CCM). Before we get into the dept, it is important for us to understand “Culture” in broad terms. The expression “culture” can be defined as the inherited values, concepts, and ways of living which are shared by people of the same social group. To simplify further, culture is divided into two kinds; the first is “generic culture” which is essentially a shared culture of all humans living on this planet. The second is “local culture” which refers to symbols and schemas shared by a particular social group. The local culture can also be understood from the simple that every country has a diverse and different culture which may be similar, but it certainly cannot be the same. Culture is different in many forms and contents that include factors that we can see like language, behavior, dressing and food; and others that we cannot see like beliefs and values. With the advent of Globalization, the world is now a global village and the technological achievements of this modern time have brought people closer together than ever. This also means that people from different parts of the world and with different cultural backgrounds are working and communicating together. While this is not only interesting, but dealing with people from different cultures requires conscience efforts in knowing the cultural diversities. This can be further be explained with examples like the way we......

Words: 2003 - Pages: 9

Margaret Mead Summary

...Warfare: An Invention- Not a Biological Necessity In the passage, Mead argues that warfare is something that is invented. Not just something that occurs because of human nature. Now to be clear, she isn’t just talking about War that happens between countries. She’s talking about the race war, class war, nationalistic war, and so on. She defines warfare in the passage as “organized conflict between two groups as groups, in which each group puts an army into the field to fight and kill, if possible, some of the members of the army of the other group.” Mead argues that warfare is more of an invention and not a necessity. She states this because a necessity is something that is needed and therefore would be occurring all over the world. But warfare doesn’t exist throughout the entire world. Mead feels that the people who believe that warfare is a necessity tend to be more aggressive because they believe this is will help them achieve full human stature. However, she uses some examples of where warfare is irrelevant to certain cultures. Eskimos and the Lepchas of Sikkim are discussed in this passage. She states that “Neither of these peoples understands war, not even the defensive warfare.” The Eskimos are a great example to support her argument though. Just because they aren’t involved in warfare doesn’t mean they aren’t a hostile bunch. There would be fights, thefts of wives, murder, and sometimes even cannibalism that occurred among them. These men are driven to the brink......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Cross Cultural Management

...Cross-Cultural Communication Theory and Practice Barry Tomalin; Brian J. Hurn ISBN: 9780230391147 DOI: 10.1057/9780230391147 Palgrave Macmillan Please respect intellectual property rights This material is copyright and its use is restricted by our standard site license terms and conditions (see palgraveconnect.com/pc/connect/info/terms_conditions.html). If you plan to copy, distribute or share in any format, including, for the avoidance of doubt, posting on websites, you need the express prior permission of Palgrave Macmillan. To request permission please contact rights@palgrave.com. Cross-Cultural Communication 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 This page intentionally left blank 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 Cross-Cultural Communication Theory and Practice Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin © Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin 2013 Foreword © Jack Spence 2013 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of......

Words: 129836 - Pages: 520

Cross Cultural Management

...number of methodological issues that can be problematic in cross-cultural studies that use self-report survey instruments. This paper reviews the organizational research literature to identify the common practices being used in relation to these issues. A framework is established for this analysis that involves three stages related to the research process. These stages are 1) the development of the research question, 2) the alignment of the research contexts, and 3) the validation of the research instruments. A sample of cross-cultural studies was examined in the context of these three stages, and served as a basis for the identification of some “best-practices” that are meant to deal with cross-cultural complexities. Introduction International perspectives are becoming more prevalent in today’s study of organizations. As business continues to take a global outlook, theoretical constructs commonly used in domestic research will need to be applied to new cross-cultural arenas. Recently, researchers have begun to take notice of some important methodological issues associated with the use of survey instruments in cross-cultural research (e.g., Cheung & Rensvold, 1999; Riordan & Vandenberg, 1994). These issues can have a strong impact on a study’s results, and on the subsequent interpretation of those results. If researchers ignore the difficulties inherent in using self-report questionnaires in cross-cultural studies, the field as a whole may be subject to......

Words: 3186 - Pages: 13

Cross Cultural in China

...Expatriates in China, Ilaria Boncori Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to University of Wollongong - PalgraveConnect - 2014-05-17 Contents List of Figures and Tables Foreword by Heather Höpfl Preface Part I Overview 1 Introduction to International Business in China China in the world Internationalization and globalization of businesses Expatriate adjustment My China Part II Before China 2 A Good Beginning is Halfway to Success Motivation, starting points and expectations Pioneering in China 3 Pre-departure Knowledge Language Understanding cultural matters 4 Recruitment and Preparation Expatriate recruitment and selection Expect the unexpected Part III In China 5 When in China Do as the Chinese Do First impressions Models of adjustment and cultural shock 6 Expatriates in the Middle Kingdom A framework of expatriate typologies in China 7 Expatriate Adjustment Initial adjustment Social adjustment Work adjustment 81 81 83 92 92 103 103 107 119 31 31 35 39 39 49 54 54 62 3 3 16 18 26 vii viii x Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to University of Wollongong - PalgraveConnect - 2014-05-17 v 10.1057/9781137293473 - Expatriates in China, Ilaria Boncori vi Contents 8 No Place Like Home Home and away Expatriate identity Part IV After China 152 152 154 10 Repatriation Adjustment Re-entry culture shock Issues at work Changes to habits, lifestyle and stimuli Physical adjustment upon repatriation Changes to......

Words: 104917 - Pages: 420

International Cross Cultural

...2 International Business (MOD001055) Chapter 8: International Human Resource Management Zubair Hassan (2013). International Human Resource Management. International Business 8.3. International Human Resource Management (IHRM) IHRM is concerned with HRM issues that cross national boundaries or are conducted in locations other than the home country headquarters. IHRM is concerned with the relationships between the HRM activities of organisations and the foreign environments in which the organisations operate. IHRM includes comparative HRM studies; e.g. differences in how companies in Japan, Thailand, Austria and Switzerland plan for upgrading of employee skills and so on. IHRM does not include studies that are focused on issues outside the traditional activities inherent in the HRM function. E.g. leadership style is not IHRM, unless specifically linked to an HRM function; developing a selection programme to measure and select global leaders would arguably lie within the domain of organisational behaviour IHRM does not include studies of HRM activities in single countries. E.g. a study of personnel selection practices in Saudi Arabia is a study about domestic HRM in Saudi Arabia. Though such studies may have interest to those who work in international HRM issues, they are essentially examples of domestic HRM research IHRM and organizational structure The type of international organisational structure adopted by the MNE will provide the context for many of the IHRM......

Words: 4886 - Pages: 20

Cross-Cultural Ethics and Social Responsibility

...Cross-Cultural Ethics and Social Responsibility Team A MGT/216 Past events in corporate America have shown destructive effects that occur when the leadership of a company behaves in an unethical manner. Enron, Tyco, WorldCom, and Adelphia are companies whose lack of ethic caused them trouble (Posters, 2003). Good Business ethics and social responsibility contributes to the success and profitability of a company and is good for society. Funco Toy World Incorporated (Funco) is a toy store that operates in the United States. After extensive research the owners of Funco decided to expand into China. According to Orfield (2006) in 2002, for the first time, China attracted more foreign investment than the United States. The world’s fastest-growing economy is the second largest behind the United States, and by mid-century, it is expected [The passive voice is a form of "be" (is) and a participle (expected). Over-use of the passive voice can make paragraphs officious and tedious to read. Try to use the active voice most often; for example, passive voice = The paper was completed on time. Active voice = the student completed the paper on time--(Note: the Plain Writing Act of 2010 makes avoidance of the passive voice in official writing a requirement for government employees)] ...

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Cross Cultural

...CROSS-CULTURAL/INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION Photo by: Yuri Arcurs Business is not conducted in an identical fashion from culture to culture. Consequently, business relations are enhanced when managerial, sales, and technical personnel are trained to be aware of areas likely to create communication difficulties and conflict across cultures. Similarly, international communication is even further strengthened when businesspeople can anticipate areas of commonality. Finally, business in general is enhanced when people from different cultures find new approaches to old problems creating solutions by combining cultural perspectives and examining the problem at hand from each other's differing cultural perspectives. ETHNOCENTRISM Problems in business communication conducted across cultures often arise when participants from one culture are unable to understand culturally determined differences in communication practices, traditions, and thought processing. At the most fundamental level, problems may occur when one or more of the people involved clings to an ethnocentric view of how to conduct business. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own cultural group is somehow innately superior to others. 1 It is easy to say that ethnocentrism only affects the bigoted or those ignorant of other cultures, and so is unlikely to be a major factor in one's own business communication. Yet difficulties due to a misunderstanding of elements in cross-cultural communication may affect...

Words: 6025 - Pages: 25

Students’ Attitudes Towards Counselling: a Cross-Cultural Study

...STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS COUNSELLING: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY by KATLEGO FANDIE This thesis is submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree Philosophiae Doctor in the FACULTY OF THE HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY at the UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE BLOEMFONTEIN January 2015 Promoter: Prof. L. Naudé DECLARATION I declare that the thesis hereby submitted by Katlego Fandie for the degree Philosophiae Doctor at the University of the Free State is my own independent work and has not previously been submitted by me at another University/Faculty. I further more cede copyright of the thesis in favour of the University of the Free State. SIGNATURE: _____________________________ DATE:____________________________ i DECLARATION OF SUPERVISOR ii PROOF OF LANGUAGE EDITOR  083 2877088  +27 51 4367975 corrieg@mweb.co.za CORRIE GELDENHUYS POSBUS 28537 DANHOF 9310 3 January 2015 TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN Herewith I, Cornelia Geldenhuys (ID 521114 0083 088) declare that I am a qualified, accredited language practitioner and that I have edited the following PhD thesis by Katlego Fandie: STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS COUNSELLING: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY All changes were indicated by track changes and comments, to be addressed by the researcher. ............................................................ C GELDENHUYS MA (LIN – cum laude), MA (Mus), HED, HDLB, UTLM ACCREDITED MEMBER OF SATI......

Words: 53406 - Pages: 214

Social Media & Cross Cultural Communication

...Running Head: SOCIAL MEDIA & CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION 1 SOCIAL MEDIA & CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION SHAWN MYERS SSC 101 HUMAN BEHAVIOR PERSPECTIVE SAINT LEO UNIVERSITY SOCIAL MEDIA & CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION 2 Abstract Social media technologies are important tools in our lives. They make it possible to maintain social relationships with existing friends and family, while at the same time building new relationships. The social lives of different cultures affect how they use this technology such as the social life of those living in the United States might benefit more from using communication technologies to build new relationships, while another social life such as those living in Germany might benefit more from using communication technologies to maintaining existing relationships. The influence the technology has on these new and existing relationships affects those lives as well. The use of communication technology such as calling, texting, instant messaging and emailing more frequently with an existing social network of friends is associated with a higher sense of belongingness to a strong and supportive social network. Calling, texting and instant messaging more frequently to new social network may be associated with an increased sense of belongingness but e-mailing to a new social network is associated with a decrease in belongingness. SOCIAL MEDIA & CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION 3 Social......

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Understanding Cross-Cultural Management

...Understanding Cross-Cultural Management Second Edition Marie-Joëlle Browaeys & Roger Price Part One CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT Concept 1.1 Facets of culture Introduction to Part One Setting the scene This introductory chapter will give an outline of the research in the field of culture and management, which in turn serves as a framework for Part One. The concept of culture Many experts in their fields have wracked their brains to come up with what they consider to be their concept of ‘culture’. Those working in the field of cultural anthropology, alone, for example, have come up with a long list of definitions of the concept, based on their analysis of ethnological, social, psychological and linguistic data. The attempt made by Bodley (1994) to summarize these (Table I.1) gives an idea of all the facets of culture that need to be taken into account from an anthropological perspective. Although acknowledging the multiplicity of cultures, the authors of this book consider that the fundamental aspect of culture is that it is something all humans learn in one way or another. It is not something people inherit, but rather a code of attitudes, norms and values, a way of thinking that is learnt within a social environment. Family, the social environment, school, friends, work – all these help to form this code and determine how people see themselves and the world. The national culture and the particular region which people live in also help to shape a...

Words: 97340 - Pages: 390