The Undergound Railroad

In: Historical Events

Submitted By tlamere
Words 3190
Pages 13
Writing 231
Ms. Fleres
11/23/09
The Underground Railroad For the better part of their lives, slaves lived under constant threat of whip administered by rough overseers and their masters, who punished them at the slightest offence. An attempt to disobey the whip sometimes could lead to death. These, combined with more than thirteen hours of intense labor every day under scorching sun are some of the reasons as to why the slaves, so badly needed to escape in search of freedom and a better life. Methods of escape were as many and as ingenious as the thousands of slaves who had already made up their minds and decided that it was time to move on and look for freedom. Before slaves escaped, they needed to ensure that they had enough supplies food, water, and clothes because the journey up north was long and tough (Borderwich 25). An escape needed thorough planning with outside contacts on how and when one would leave the compound and what their first destination would be. This would ensure that the slave would arrive in time at the next destination where he or she would meet the people who would help him or her to move on from there. Most runaway slaves escaped from plantations by foot, carefully choosing the ‘safest’ paths that would deliver them to the next point, from which they would now join their helpers (Borderwich 27). The plantations were vast and finding a way out to a safer place was no easy task. Escape from the plantations needed to be done at a time when the slave master or the overseers were not aware and most slaves opted to run away at night when no one would be awake to see them. It was important for the runaway slave to seek guidance from the people who would help them escape north because of the terror of being pursued by bounty hunters or their masters. For a successful escape, there was need for trust between the slave and…...

Similar Documents

Railroad

...Case Analysis: Clark v. Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company The court case was held in Montgomery, MO. The verdict was decided December 23, 1903. Mr. Clark, the plaintiff, armed himself with a big club about six feet long and said: “I very often take a club if I am after stock.” Jim Housman was in the lead, next came George, then Mr. Clark and they were on the railroad track which was on top of a fifteen foot embankment which was so steep that when you ran down the embankment the momentum of the body carried the person over the level space at the foot of the embankment and into the borrow pit. Mr. Clark was a section hand who worked for the railroad for the past four years. Part of his duties as a section hand were to clean up and take care of live animals transported by the railroad and to clean up around the tracks whenever there was a mess. On the night of the accident he was called to come help retrieve some cattle that got loose. Along with two other hands (sons of the foreman) they collected all the cattle, except one, and drove them into a pen. He was ordered, along with the others, to find and return the last steer, and then Mr. Clark and the foreman’s sons started walking to look for the steer. He said: “it was dark and not yet daylight…” when he was ordered along with the others to get the other steer. Mr. Houseman, the defendant, was called by the conductor of the train that there was an accident and some steers were loose in the area and......

Words: 1771 - Pages: 8

Nogo Railroad Case Analysis

...Case Analysis: The NoGo Railroad Teresa Arana Table of Contents Problems………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Macro……………………………………………………………………………………4 Micro ……………………………………………………………………………………4 Causes….. ………………………………………………………………………………………5 Systems Affected .………………………………………………………………………………5 Goals and Values Subsystem……………………………………………………………5 Technical Subsystem……………………………………………………………………6 Structural Subsystem…………………………………………………………………….6 Psychosocial Subsystem…………………………………………………………………6 Managerial Subsystem…………………………………………………………………...6 Alternatives………………………………………………………………………………………7 Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………………7 References …………………………………………………………………………………….....9 Dave Keller has requested outside consultation to aid him with his new position as communication manager of the division. Mr. Keller has limited managerial experience, but has researched his main challenges in his new position at NoGo Railroad. NoGo Railroad “serves remote and mountainous areas and hauls primarily timber, coal, potash, and phospohorous” (Brown, 2011, p. 56). Its issues are not new, and Mr. Keller has been placed in the new position so that he can address all the challenges. Problems Macro The case of the NoGo Railroad has issues that are affecting different levels of employment in the organization, from employees to management. NoGo railroad has two main issues that must be addressed in order to reduce expenses and improve the attitude of employees: create a......

Words: 1270 - Pages: 6

Railroad

...1.) Dave Keller is faced with two problem areas at NOGO Railroad Company that has affected the company as a whole. The reduction of current employee expenses necessary to run the day to day operation, and the improving attitude of the employees to except the necessary changes to increase productivity and the continued growth of NOGO Railroad Company. With the current operation system at NOGO Railroad Company, the threat of layoffs could be in the near future. 2.) Dave Keller doesn’t seem to be receiving any backing from management to help him solve the current problems in his department at NOGO Railroad Company. David doesn’t have the authority to make such changes. He is missing the motivational force of his manager and the company owner to implement these changes. The current issue he is faced with has been ongoing and has not been handled by the previous manager. Currently at NOGO Railroad Company low morale has also been an issue. Most employees don’t feel that have to do extra work, so other employees are overworked. 3.) What needs to change is reduce crushing employee expenses, and improve the attitude of employees to accept necessary changes. 4.) I would start with training and development programs: adequate training must be provided to all the employees to ensure that there is smooth functioning of operations. Human resource planning and forecasting: HR planning will ensure that right number of people are available in the organization at the right......

Words: 1372 - Pages: 6

Nogo Railroad

...CASE NO. 1 NOGO RAILROAD NOGO RAILROAD CASE ANALYSIS FORM I. PROBLEM Dave Keller, the new Communications Manager, has seek for external perspective on how to address the challenges in Nogo Railroad. After hearing the facts from Dave, we have identified the problem is “How will Nogo Railroad effectively address its employees’ concerns that will bring about a reduction in labor expense?” There are Macro and Micro Level problems to be considered. When these are effectively addressed, Nogo Railroad may be able to resolve problem mentioned earlier. A. MACRO 1. Innovation and Modernization. The company lacks the desire to innovate and modernize operations which tolerated inefficient and ineffective processes or practices. It is not a surprise to see Nepotism and Featherbedding. 2. Union Contracts. Poor negotiation of union contracts has left the company with liabilities. Changing the job description to make it relevant to times, is a restricted/limited by these outdated contracts. 3. Culture towards change. Resistance to change is not only prevalent in its employees. This also transcends in management (see problem#1). The leaders should embrace change and support its employees affected by the change. B. MICRO 1. Personal Doubts. The apprehension felt by Dave Keller needs to be address. His concerns towards his promotion and purpose should be resolved by Allan Yates. The new Communications Manager will only be effective if......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5

The No-Go Railroad

...|Structure of the company | |Social: Morale problems are imminent due to acceptance of change, featherbedding and reduction in expenses | |Technical: removal and combination of jobs may lead to covert and organized work slowdown. In addition, clerks are not currently allowed to travel | |more than 30 miles to work so there are too many clerks for the available work | |Managerial: Dave’s new responsibilities include negotiations with 2 unionized parties as well as eliminate obsolete practices and modernize the | |railroad against opposition internally – all job descriptors that Dave has little experience of. Dave must also reduce these employee’s expenses. | |Overall Goals and Values: No extra responsibilities accepted by employees, resistance to change and lack of good communication all negate good | |future goals for the company. The company is wholly reactive not proactive. | Alternatives |Training and development – train clerks to become telegraph operators and allow them to travel in that role, allocate this new combined position a | |better salary than clerk and look for volunteers in present clerk pool ......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

The Future of Railroads

...The Resilience of the Railroad Industry Lindsay Millar, Jessica Settlecowski & Mike Gawel MGT 674 March 23, 2013 The history and resilience of the railway industry is rather remarkable as it has helped shape the landscape and the formation of the United States. Railways allowed colonies to settle in the West and the country suddenly became connected from coast to coast. This encouraged the exchange of goods and stimulated the development of towns and communities along track lines. Soldiers were shipped directly to the forefront of battleground lines and supplied with a constant flow of ammunition. Most importantly, trains were the steam engine that fueled the industrial revolution. The railway industry’s history is rich with experience and wise with age, as it has survived many seemingly insurmountable obstacles, including: the Great Depression, civil war, the advent of automobiles and airplanes and federal regulation. Federal regulation took the largest toll on the industry as it restricted the ability of the industry to adapt to future demands and market requirements. The growth of rail was stunted by 100 years of federal regulation and since the Staggers Act of 1980 which led to deregulation, the industry has been struggling to recover. After the implementation of the Staggers Act the industry has undergone serious reconstruction which has increased the overall performance and reliability of rail. As service levels improve the demand for low rates and large......

Words: 5841 - Pages: 24

Railroads and Cities

...Which cities were established due to the growth in the railroads? During the period of expanding railroads, several cities were established. As the expansion of the railroad systems increased across the country, cites close to, New York, Chicago, Baltimore, Washington and Massachusetts were some of the larger cities that were affected by the railroad. What social and economic changes transpired from the growth of the railroad and the establishment of new cities? There were several social and economic changes transpired from the expansion of the railroads and the establishment of new cities. Railroads improved business with steel, coal, wood, glass, rubber, and brass, which enhanced the economy with economic growth (Davidson, 2006). The industrial system which helped to expand economic growth, as a result more people were able to settle farther West, traveling by train. Freight was also transported by train, bringing mail and other things to further parts of the country. How were the social and economic changes significant to growth in the United States? All the changes brought by the growth of the railroads, improved the U.S. extensively bringing new resources across the country when until that time was nearly impossible. People were able to set up communities in areas were it was hard to transport to, correspond easily, and grow socially due to the expansion of the Railroads across the country. Railroads led the way to the country to grow in a variety......

Words: 276 - Pages: 2

Nogo Railroad

...CRANEFIELD COLLEGE OF PROJECT AND PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT MODULE 2 CASE: “The NoGo Railroad” DECLARATION “I hereby declare that this assignment is entirely my own work, and that it has not previously been submitted to any other Higher Education Institution. I also declare that all published and unpublished sources have been fully acknowledged and properly referenced. This includes figures, tables and exhibits. Where modified by me, this has also been indicated.” CONTENTS 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2. FINDINGS 3.1. About Dave Keller 3.2. The Temporary Position Issue 3.3. The Company Mission/Vision or Core Value 3.4. Outcomes, KPI’s and Goals 3.5. The Project Budget and Time Constraint 3.6. The Authority, Accountability and Responsibility Issue 3.7. Bound by Contract 3.8. Old Practises 3.9. Upskilling 3.10. The Human Resource Dilemma 3.11. The Morale Issue 3.12. Featherbedding and Nepotism 3.13. Top Management Support 3.14. The Transformation 3. RECOMMENDATIONS 4.15. About Dave Keller 4.16. The Temporary Position Issue 4.17. The Company Mission/Vision or Core Value 4.18. Outcomes, KPI’s and Goals 4.19. The Project Budget and Time Constraint 4.20. The Authority, Accountability and Responsibility Issue 4.21. Bound by Contract 4.22. Old Practises 4.23. Upskilling ......

Words: 5997 - Pages: 24

Railroad Classification Yard

...Railroad Classification Yard Guylee Washington Coastal Pines College February 25, 2015 Railroad Classification Yard Do you know what a railroad classification yard consist of? In railroad freight transportation, shipments are consolidated to benefit from economies of scale. Railroad classification yards, also called shunting yards, play an important role as consolidation nodes in rail freight networks. At classification yards, inbound trains are disassembled and the railcars are sorted blocks. Through this procedure, railcars can be routed through the network in a series of blocks moving on trains in such a way that every destination pair can be served while avoiding a large number of end-to-end connections. Due to the complexity of terminal operations, computer simulation offers a flexible and credible technique to identify more opportunities for yard performance improvements. However, the use of simulation technique to model terminal operations is not a common practice in freight railroads. Throughout this report I will be explaining key factors that depicts the typical operations in a railroad hump yard and performance measurements that are used to gauge the efficiency of yard operations. In North America, railroad classification yards are classified into two main types: hump yards and flat yards. Did you know that “More than half of the hump yards in North America have closed in the past 25 years? From 152 operating classification yards in 1975, the number......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Nogo Railroad

...Overview This case explains the problems NOGO RAILROAD faced when they tried to implement organizational change to increase their efficiency and stay afloat in their economy. Problems Macro: 1. One of the major issues NOGO faced was that workers did not accept the changes the organization was trying to implement on them. For example, assigning additional duties to workers so that they may not sit idle most of the time. 2. Another issue they faced was the financial cost of paying so many workers, even though most of them didn’t work at all. In other word there was an overabundance of clerks without enough work to keep them all busy. Micro: 1. The clerks were mostly women and their contract stated that they could not be sent for more than 30 miles away from home for assignments. In rural districts, this led to having a large of clerks who could not cover for vacations and emergencies. 2. The telegraph operators could be sent anywhere, but could only replace telegraph operators. Clerks could only replace other clerks. It was not uncommon during major derailments for telegraph operators to be hundreds of miles from their home, on overtime, living on expenses paid by the railroad, yet working next to clerks having nothing to do. Causes 1. The morale problem had been created by a recruitment process which traditionally favored the hiring of relatives, nepotism. Resistance to change this was high, especially when the cooperation could result in loss of employment for one......

Words: 684 - Pages: 3

Railroads, Industrial Revolution

...Impact of the Railroad: Portugal vs. Europe Cullen Jones Econ 30423 Dr. Lovett December 3, 2013 Railroads first came around in the early 19th century. It is common knowledge that the railroad helped the economy and the people living in that time; but to what extent? This paper will examine the railroad in greater detail to determine how revolutionary the invention actually was. An intricate railway system helped make shipping more economical as well as changed population habits. Sources indicate that these changes could have affected the economy of a country. The railroad became prominent in different countries at different rates and at different times. This paper will also discuss this and try to find any repercussions of a delayed start to the widespread use of the rail road. There is some evidence to support that the railroad affected a countries current economic standing. A primary country that will be observed is Portugal. The statistics and information on Portugal is relevant to what is being discussed. Portugal will be compared to countries like the United Kingdom and Spain to see how each was affected by the railroad. There are a significant amount of difference between the railroad, including how they took on the process of building a system and how that affected the country as a whole. Economic Impact of the Railroad: Portugal vs. Europe Cullen Jones Railroads first came around in the early 19th century. It is common knowledge that the railroad......

Words: 4794 - Pages: 20

B&O Railroad

...The B&O Railroad By: Jaime Lewis For: Professor Knutson November 26, 2013 CON 101 Abstract The construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad started in July of 1828. The city of Baltimore came up with the idea to build this railroad from Baltimore to Ohio because of the competition throughout the popular seaports in the United States. Baltimore was already a popular city, but adding a train that could carry people as well as goods would make more people travel to Baltimore, and other places along the train’s route, bring goods into Baltimore, and help keep Baltimore alive. The B&O railroad was always expanding. The railroad is best known for being the first railroad in the United States that used a steam locomotive. B&O Railroad Why was there a need for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad? The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was built due to competition throughout the main seaports in the United States. Due to the fact that Baltimore is at the top of the Chesapeake Bay, it had many advantages over other ports. Another way for goods to be transported from Baltimore all they way to Ohio was a great idea for Baltimore, therefore causing the plan for the B&O Railroad. During this time Baltimore was flooding with business. They constantly had ships coming into the harbor as well as trucks riding the highways. Baltimore was (and still is) such a popular and thriving city, so the railroad made sense to help keep business, and the city, alive. Baltimore had......

Words: 2781 - Pages: 12

Transcontinential Railroad

...The Transcontinental Railroad was the first railroad that spanned the nation from east to west. The railroad was comprised of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific railroad companies. Together these two railroads were able to bring the nation together, and the railroads contributed to the economic success of a growing nation. In 1839, the Corps of Topographical Engineers was created as a unit of the United States Army.[1] The purpose of this branch was to explore the continent with the hope of achieving the concept of manifest destiny. In 1853, Congress sent out a group of people to explore the west and to find a suitable route for a transcontinental railroad. However, there were other groups that went out on private expeditions. One of the members of this group was John C. Fremont, who made five major expeditions into the west.[2] Once California became a state in 1850, the government wanted to ensure that California did not break away from the Union.[3] One way to ensure this was to build a transcontinental railroad to provide transportation and communication between the eastern and western states. Since an effective route for the railroad had not been officially decided Congress appointed this job to Jefferson Davis, who was the Secretary of War, on March 3, 1853. Congress gave Davis the task of finding the potential route along four different lines of latitude. The people involved in the expeditions faced many problems including Indian attacks, long......

Words: 3279 - Pages: 14

Railroad Systems

...After the establishment of the Railroad System and the expansion of big business, the role of business and its’ influence became the central debate among the influential thinkers of that time. Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species (1859), just 40 years prior advocated that let nature run its’ course and whoever survives is the better organism. This same thinking was advocated in big business; where even the European concept of governmental noninterference suggested that, let the workings of the economy take its own course. Professor Francis Bowen of Harvard wrote this same sentiment in his American Political Economy (1870).1 Concepts such as, “let the buyer beware,” and “you cannot wet-nurse people from the time they are born until the time they die.”2 These were actually recipes of disaster to come because big business was in full control of the workers. Adam Smith, the famous economist’s Wealth of Nations (1776) referenced this very notion as well, cloaked behind the “invisible hand” concept, where he explained why free competition among businesses advanced the common good of the people as a whole.3 These sentiments of the time met strong intellectual opposition in the pens of influentials like Henry George (1879), and Edward Bellamy (1888). Henry George was a California journalist, who wrote Progress and Poverty, in direct opposition to how the wealth was unevenly distributed.4 George suggested that we should tax property owners who are sitting idly and collecting......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Csx Railroad

...class 1 railroads operating in the United States. The railroad industry doesn’t compete in a real free market. They tend to be somewhat monopolistic due to their size and scope, and for this reason they are regulated by the government. But as with any other business, the state of the economy is a factor on their profitability. With a continuingly slow economy the railroad services will remain lower in demand than CSX would like. As with mostly all of the other transportation services, the cost of fuel is a major contributing factor towards CSX’s bottom line. CSX and much of the railroad industry have implemented and continue to implement new technology to help keep their costs down, which allows them to be more competitive. According to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, freight moved on trains would cost shippers an additional $70 billion on standard trucks.  Fuel efficiency is not the only technological advancement being made in the railroad industry. As with many other businesses in the field of logistics, GPS and other wireless technologies continue to add efficiency. New technologies are being applied to increase safety. Over the last 5 years CSX has had a 40% improvement in the rate of train accidents. Being a regulated industry, railroad is at sometimes more than others, highly connected to the political environment. When the regulations are loosened, the rail industry tends to be much more profitable. The future of railroad......

Words: 458 - Pages: 2