To What Extent Was the Impact of Social Reformers the Most Important Change for the People of Wales and England 1880 – 1929?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By taffykay
Words 1214
Pages 5
To what extent was the impact of social reformers the most important change for the people of Wales and England 1880 – 1929?

In the 1880s Britain was led by the Liberal leader Gladstone. He believed in laissez-faire meaning that people helped themselves rather than relying on the government for help. The poor were seen as either undeserving or deserving and upper class men were the only people who had the vote. There were only two political parties to vote for – the Conservatives and the Liberals, neither of which offered any help to the poor as they felt that they didn’t deserve help as it was their own fault for getting into poverty.

The first time that the government got involved in people’s lives was in 1906 with the Liberal Reforms, and was a direct result of the social reformers. In the 1880s, the settlement movement started where middle class citizens would go to areas of poverty to provide childcare and education, in order to try and improve the lives of the poor. The Social Reformers, Booth and Rowntree, published their findings and made an effect felt by many people in different ways. They conducted studies in London and York on poverty and published their findings and coined the term ‘poverty line’. They found that 30% of people lived in poverty and that it was a direct cause of poor health. They found that the primary causes of poverty were low wages, illness and age. No matter how hard someone worked, they could not lift themselves above the poverty line. These conditions the poor lived in could only be improved by direct intervention by the government into people’s lives. The spread of newspapers carried this information across the country and 'social explorers' found the same results in many other places. These caused change as when the upper class saw the findings in the newspapers, they were able to understand more about those living in…...

Similar Documents

The Role of Disraeli Was the Most Important in the Achievement of Parlimentary Reform in 1867. Discuss Whether This View Is Valid.

..."The role of Disraeli was the most important in the achievement of Parliamentary Reform in 1867." How valid is this view? The representation of the People Act in 1867, more commonly known as the Reform Act of 1867 or the Second Reform Act was a piece of British legislation that enfranchised the urban male working class in England and Wales. The 1867 Reform Act was the second major attempt to reform Britain’s electoral process – the first being the 1832 Reform Act. It was not just the role of Disraeli but one must also take consideration to popular pressure and take note of the role of the middle class and working class radicals, the importance of the Reform League and union, the importance of Hyde Park Riots and that of other important political figures such as Gladstone, Derby and Russell and the importance of different political parties; the Conservative and Liberal Party. The passage of the Reform Act resulted in; The 1867 Reform Act enfranchised 1,500,000 men. All male urban householders and male lodgers paying £10 rent a year for unfurnished accommodation got the right to vote. The act all but doubled the electorate. 52 seats were redistributed from small towns (less than a population of 10,000 such as Chichester, Harwich and Windsor) to the growing industrial towns or counties. Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool and Manchester saw their representation increase from 2 MP’s to 3 MP’s. The University of London was also given a seat. The counties of Cheshire, Kent, Norfolk,......

Words: 2204 - Pages: 9

To What Extent Was Hitler's Economic Policy Coherent?

...to a large debate in many different areas, and an important part of it was whether he had control over what happened, and similarly if it was coherent or not. Hitler ‘did’ potentially have control over the economy directly if he wanted to use it, instead he delegated the management of the important thing to subordinates of many different departments and offices, resulting in failure. Hitler did have control, but didn’t use it to his full extent, instead he gave brief outlines of what he wanted done to suit his economic policy. Likewise, his policies were nowhere near coherent if we look between 1933 and 1945, instead his economic policy fluctuated depending on international affairs. [Slide 2] Hitler’s economy was not planned from the start and it never was. Obviously the first steps were to recover from the wall street crash of 1929, but nothing more than that. Instead, what we saw was Hitler shaping his economic policy around the basis that foreign policy drove economy policy, and it was there to satisfy his needs of what he was doing with his military. To prove that his economic policy was not coherent we can take a look at the three main changes between 1933 and 1939, i.e. the recovery period, the rearmament period and the war period. Each is so distinct and so unlike the other that historians have branded them as different eras. In this sense, his policy was not coherent. The only thing that was however, was that it was based around his needs throughout his time in......

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

To What Extent Was England a Catholic Country at the Time of Mary I’s Death in 1558?

...To what extent was England a Catholic country at the time of Mary I’s death in 1558? When Mary began her reign, England was firmly Protestant, due to the Edwardian Reformation which wiped out all traces of Catholicism. She was a strong Catholic, and attended Mass at least once a day and saying prayers in her chapel every night. She interpreted that her initial popularity was due to the return of Catholicism rather than for the dislike of Northumberland and the support for her own legitimacy as rightful queen. Due to this she aimed to re-assert Catholic doctrines and practises and to re-establish Papal Supremacy. However ultimately Mary’s attempt to make England a full Catholic country failed, as her reign was too short, and she did not produce a Catholic heir to continue her attempt. Mary felt that it was her commitment to bring back full Catholicism to England. She was devout in personal worship, attending Mass at least once a day, and saying prayers every night. As a Princess she did not abandon her catholic faith, and only accepted the Royal Supremacy of her father in 1536 under duress. This was further encouraged by Cardinal Pole as he compared her to Mary mother of Jesus, and she had a divine purpose. She proclaimed on 18th August 1553 that she hoped that others would follow her religion. This made it seem that she was more interested in reforming religion instead of political reasons. The beginning of Mary’s reign is a typical example of a catholic Reformation, and......

Words: 1386 - Pages: 6

In the Context of the Period 1825-1937, to What Extent Was the First Five Year Plan (1928-1933) the Most Successful Change to Russian Economic Output?

...perhaps the most decisive turning point in the history of the country of Russia. While the NEP system was not formally repudiated, official policies increasingly came to contradicts fundamental assumptions. The first five year plan (1928-1933) could be construed as a general success even though it did have its moment of failure. The first five year plan was introduced in Russia in an attempt to catch up with the more advanced west. As Stalin said 'We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years.' The focus of the first five year plan on heavy industry made huge strides in modernising industry and increasing output, in that 'Coal, iron, and the generation of electrical power all increased in huge proportion’s and Russia felt it could compete again on a scale with its western rivals. However, despite overarching economic development, many of the targets set by central panning didn't consider the quality of products or waste of materials and on reflection, highlight a number of fundamental flaws in the measurement of success of the first five year plan. Stalin's idea of collectivisation forced the peasants to move to a commune, share the livestock and equipment whilst having to give the government their share of the revenue. 'The government figured that new technology and new farming machines, would allow mass production of food without the large amount of workers that was needed before'. Collectivisation was......

Words: 3975 - Pages: 16

To What Extent Was the Development of the Post

...To what extent was the development of the post - Stalin thaw in superpower relations between 1952 and 1962 the result of Khrushchev's policy of peaceful coexistence? After the death of Stalin in 1953, there was a general improvement in Superpower relations and occasionally both superpowers were willing to meet and negotiate, which in turn led to a much more stable world in comparison to 1945-52 when the Soviet Union was ruled under Stalin’s oppressive regimes. Khrushchev proposed a policy of ‘peaceful coexistence’ although previously proposed by Malenkov’s ‘New Course’, to which the USA responded with ‘New Look’ and ‘Flexible Response’. These changes led to the Post-Stalin thaw witnessing events such as the Geneva Summit and Khrushchev's visit to US. Peaceful coexistence was a hesitant move towards better dialogue between the two superpowers. Khrushchev accepted the Marxist belief that the downfall of capitalism was inevitable, and peaceful coexistence was the best way of conducting relations in the meantime. The fact that by 1949 the division of Europe into two camps, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, had been established and consolidated gave relations between East and West a degree of stability. The Iron Curtain was now a defined line marker the border of recognised spheres of influence, with their positions secure, the superpowers were more willing to attempt negotiation resulting in the thaw. Peaceful coexistence had many successes, including the armistice concluded in Korea,......

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

To What Extent Was Khruschev Successful in the Destalinisation Policy

...successful was Khrushchev’s policy of destalinization Destalinization was a political reform launched by Soviet Communist Party First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev at the 20th Party Congress, otherwise known as the secret speech. The main components of the reforms were changing or removing prominent institutions that had helped Stalin remain in power; the Stalinist political system, political party members that had supported him (beginning with the arrest and subsequent execution of political rival Lavrentiy Beria) and the removal of the Gulag labour camp system. Khrushchev was desperate to present himself as a reformer, completely breaking away from the reliance of ‘fear into submission’ tactics of the Stalinist era, by presenting himself as a ‘man of the people’. He wished to lessen the gap between the soviet leadership and the people, whilst undermining his predecessors’ dictatorship rule. It has been argued that his attempt to end the use of terror both in political and public life and the reintegration of those who had fallen victim to said terror, was one of the successes of the destalinization policy. This included the released of five million prisoners from labour camps. A total of eight million prisoners had been released by the end of 1956. Shortly after, in 1961, Khrushchev initiated a campaign to rename cities that previously honoured Stalin; Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd. Stalin’s persona was publicly attacked; most importantly in destroying his image,......

Words: 785 - Pages: 4

To What Extent Was the Impact of the First World War Responsible for the Downfall of Tsarism in March 1917?

...To what extent was the impact of the First World War responsible for the downfall of Tsarism in March 1917? In March 1917, Nicholas II abdicated and brought Tsarist’s three hundred year reign to an end. The issue of the Tsar’s downfall divides historians with two different viewpoints. The first perspective is that Russia was making progress, however it was solely undermined by the First World War in which the war caused massive losses, poor leadership and unloyality of the troops. The alternative view is that long term social, economic and political factors already existed because of the challenges of modernising the country. Together these problems contributed to the Tsar’s inability to maintain monarchy and support of civilians and led to the downfall of Tsarism. The first reason for the First World War being responsible for the downfall of Tsarism is that Russia suffered massive defeats very early on. The Tsar believed they could win the war against Germany really easily. However, they did not realise how powerful the German army was. In the Battle of Tattenburg tens of thousands were dead or wounded and within a week at the Battle of Masurian Lakes the Russian army lost another 100,000 soldiers. Morale decreased visibly, worsened not only by the shortages or bad transport system but by bad news from the front. Despite the occasional victories, Russia emerged in the war as ill-equipped, with the soldiers under-fed. The morale was so low that there were Russian......

Words: 1694 - Pages: 7

The Problems Caused by Poverty Were Mainly Responsible for Social Reform 1880-1980

...by poverty were mainly responsible for Social reform, 1880-1980.” Discuss Poverty has certainly been a key factor in causing social reform between 1880 and 1980. However it has not been the only influence and along with other causal factors like war, political ideology, economic policy and political self-interest, it has played a lesser or greater part at different times over this one hundred year period. Poverty was rife in 1880 but there was little interest from the government in reforming social conditions. The prevailing attitude of the government was “laissez faire”. Samuel Smiles a social commentator championed the ideal of ‘self-help’. If poverty did influence social reform at this time, its influence was negative. The belief that helping the poor would make them lazy and dependant was a key reason why many politicians opposed the introduction of social reform. They were happy to stay with the hopelessly outdated Poor Law which punished poverty with the workhouse, believing that the poor, chose to be poor and were feckless. Charles Booth was of this opinion until he carried out a study of the poor in London between 1889 and 1903.In his book “Life and Labour of the people in London” he concluded that despite working hard, 30% of London’s population was in poverty. This shocked the public and the government. When a similar study on the city of York was published by Seebohm Rowntree it simply confirmed what Booth had found; poverty was endemic. This explained the......

Words: 1807 - Pages: 8

Impact of Social Institution on People

...Impact of Societal Social Institutions on People These embody all the ideas and beliefs of members of the society about how they think their lives should be organized. Dominant ideas and beliefs are those usually of the ruling class or the rich and powerful and tend to be the ones people find legitimate. Minority and weaker beliefs are also apart of the social institution but are not felt to be legitimate by the majority of the society and so may be suppressed and alienated. These ideas are normally in competition with one another for supremacy. So how can ideas be the building block of an entire society. Each institution becomes tangible through social organizations. So religious beliefs of the Christian are made tangible through the church. The ideas and beliefs forming the institution become concrete in the society through social organisations which reflect how these ideas are held. In each institution there are values (ideas on how something should be ranked in society), norms (yardsticks and standards that have evolved on how we should act), statuses (assigned positions or locations), and roles (expectations of behaviour). They are then the fundamental building blocks of society and vary over time and are based on the ideals which the people of the society have on accomplishing the tasks of living together collectively The Family Nancie Solien defines the family as "group of people bound by that complex set of relationships known as kinship ties“. It is the basic unit......

Words: 4039 - Pages: 17

To What Extent Was Edward the Confessor a Successful Monarch?

...To what extent was Edward the Confessor a successful monarch? Edward was a successful monarch because throughout his reign there were few rebellions and the kingdom was mostly at peace. However, he could also be considered an unsuccessful monarch as he exiled Godwin and his son Swegn and yet after, renounced their exile. Edward brought Normans to England and gave them positions of power. Robert of Jumièges was brought to England and became the Archbishopric of Canterbury from 1051 to 1052. Another Norman brought over was Ralph the Timid (Ralph of Mantes) who was Edward’s nephew and he was the Earl of Herford from 1051 to 1055/57. These appointments were to the dislike of many Anglo-Saxon nobles, especially Godwin, as they believed that high positions such as Archbishopric were meant to be held by Anglo-Saxons. Edward mainly appointed these Normans because he trusted them more than some Anglo-Saxons, this shows the Edward was very self-sufficient and that he could use his power for things that he wanted, instead of being controlled by Earls such as Godwin. It is also a statement of who is in control and who the leader is. The earldom of Herefordshire was held by Godwin’s son Swegn and so by appointing a Norman to that position it emphasises his power. These are all good qualities of a successful monarch. Because of this ability to cement that he is in charge and show who is in power, there were very few rebellions during Edward’s reign from 1042 to 1066. One of the few......

Words: 771 - Pages: 4

To What Extent Was Gustav Stresemann Responsible for the Increased Stability in Germany in the Years 1924-1929?

...To what extent was Gustav Stresemann responsible for the increased stability in Germany in the years 1924-1929? Between the years of 1924 and 1929, Gustav Stresemann had a huge influence over Germany and helped it regain stability after World War One and hyperinflation. Before he took charge and became chancellor in 1923 Germany’s economy was extremely unstable, Stresemann came to power to resolve many of Germany’s issues. There were many reasons why Stresemann was responsible for the stability, some of these included the end of passive resistance, the Dawes plan and the change in currency, all of these were good factors however some did hold some negative effects, He focused on improving the economy, relations with other countries and improving the social aspects of living. Although Stresemann’s actions and policies had both good and bad sides, overall it was because of these that Stresemann is responsible for the regained stability of Germany. Stresemann changed the currency when he became chancellor after 1923 from the deutch mark to the Rentenmark, this put an end to hyperinflation. Hyperinflation meant that the German currency became almost completely worthless with price rising by thousands from one day to the next. By making this change, Stresemann gave the Rentenmark a better value and allowed Germany to get out of the, what seemed endless, hyperinflation. However this had a negative effect too as the money the middle and working class lost during hyperinflation,......

Words: 723 - Pages: 3

To What Extent Was Edward the Confessor a Successful Monarch?

...To what extent was Edward the Confessor a successful monarch? Edward was a successful monarch because throughout his reign there were few rebellions and the kingdom was mostly at peace. However, he could also be considered an unsuccessful monarch as he exiled Godwin and his son Swegn and yet after, renounced their exile. Edward brought Normans to England and gave them positions of power. Robert of Jumièges was brought to England and became the Archbishopric of Canterbury from 1051 to 1052. Another Norman brought over was Ralph the Timid (Ralph of Mantes) who was Edward’s nephew and he was the Earl of Herford from 1051 to 1055/57. These appointments were to the dislike of many Anglo-Saxon nobles, especially Godwin, as they believed that high positions such as Archbishopric were meant to be held by Anglo-Saxons. Edward mainly appointed these Normans because he trusted them more than some Anglo-Saxons, this shows the Edward was very self-sufficient and that he could use his power for things that he wanted, instead of being controlled by Earls such as Godwin. It is also a statement of who is in control and who the leader is. The earldom of Herefordshire was held by Godwin’s son Swegn and so by appointing a Norman to that position it emphasises his power. These are all good qualities of a successful monarch. Because of this ability to cement that he is in charge and show who is in power, there were very few rebellions during Edward’s reign from 1042 to 1066. One of the few......

Words: 771 - Pages: 4

By the End of the 2nd Half of the 19 Century Britain Was a Mature Industrial Society and Was Able to Experience Many of the Benefits of the Industrial Revolution. Discuss

...Britain was a mature industrial society and was able to experience many of the benefits of the industrial revolution. Discuss. By the end of the nineteenth century, Britain experienced enormous industrial expansion, thereby creating an improvement in the lives of most of its people. The middle classes fare well by the opening of new opportunities in employment, residing, for the most part, in the new suburbs of the industrial cities and towns. They surrounded themselves with the clutter of possessions associated with a new consumer age. There were modest improvements in the working and living conditions of working class people, many of whom were drawn to the cities from rural areas in the hope of a better life. This essay will examine the conditions of life in late Victorian Britain in order to establish the extent of the benefits brought about by industrial transformation, insofar as they affected the lives of the different classes. In 1800, twenty five per cent of the population of England lived in the cities and towns. Within a period of eighty years this position was reversed. In 1850, the year of the Great Exhibition, which was a celebration of British industrial achievement, the ‘number of urban dwellers exceeded those who dwelt in the countryside’. The cities of Birmingham and Manchester more than doubled their populations between 1801 and 1831. The industrial revolution was synonymous with the cotton industry in the early part of the century. This was......

Words: 3192 - Pages: 13

The Hazards Presented by Volcanic and Seismic Events Have the Greatest Impact on the World’s Poorest People. to What Extent Do You Agree?

...The hazards presented by volcanic and seismic events have the greatest impact on the world’s poorest people. To what extent do you agree? A geologic hazard is an extreme natural events in the crust of the earth that pose a threat to life and property, for example, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and landslides. Volcanic hazards include ash, pyroclastic flow, lava, lahars, landslides, glacial melt and disturbances to the air quality. Seismic hazards can include the initial shaking, buildings collapsing, aftershocks, landslides and tsunamis. These hazards can effect local people, for example homes lost, a national scale, for example cities lost, or on a global scale, for example flights grounded and ash circulates around the world, as well as temporary climate change. However, while it is undisputable that these hazards effect everyone, I agree to a partial extent that they do have the greatest impact on the world’s poorest people. Volcanoes appear in both developed and undeveloped countries. They are dictate by plate boundaries; they never appear at a transform boundary. They always appear on a divergent boundary where the two plates are pulling apart from each other, forming new crust. This creates a gentler volcano, as there is pure mantle forming the magma. They sometimes appear on a convergent boundary. When the two pieces of land are oceanic and oceanic, and oceanic and continental, volcanoes will appear. This is because you will get a subduction zone,......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...Adas for the American Historical Association. p. cm.—(Critical perspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7 (paper : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0271-4 (electronic) 1. History, Modern—20th century. 2. Twentieth century. 3. Social history—20th century. 4. World politics—20th century. I. Adas, Michael, 1943– II. American Historical Association. D421.E77 2010 909.82—dc22 2009052961 The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992 Printed in the United States of America 2 4 6 8 9 7 5 3 1 C ONTENTS Introduction Michael Adas 1 1 World Migration in the Long Twentieth Century • Jose C. Moya and Adam McKeown 9 • 2 Twentieth-Century Urbanization: In Search of an Urban Paradigm for an Urban World • Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century • Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence • John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History • Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective • Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of......

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656