Urban Paper

In: Social Issues

Submitted By mzlee28
Words 811
Pages 4
Birmingham Urban Paper Rural-Urban Social Welfare & Social Work

Abstract

Introduction

Uneven development has long been the preeminent feature of urban and metropolitan growth in the United States. In recent years, the word “spawl” has crept into the vocabulary of scholars, public officals, and community organization leaders who are wrestling with diverse challenges posed by urban life (Galster et al. 2000). Suburban sprawl has been the dominant form of metropolitan- area growth in the United States for the past 50 years”(Downs 1998). Sprawl can be defined as a pattern of urban and metropolitian growth that reflects low density, automobile-dependent, new development on the fringe of settled areas often surrounding a deteriorating city. Among the traits of metropolitan growth frequently associated with sprawl are unlimited outward extension of development; low-density housing and commercial development; leapfrog development, "edge cities," and more recently "edgeless cities"; fragmentation of land use planning among multiple municipalities; reliance on private automobiles for transportation; segregation of types of land use; race and class-based exclusionary housing and employment; congestion and environmental damage; and a declining sense of community among area residents (Downs 1999; Garreau 1991; Katz and Bradley 1999; Lang 2000; Rusk 1999).
However, these spatial patterns of development are rooted in a context of substantial economic restructuring. Moreover, these spatial and structural changes exacerbate a number of social problems that have long plagued urban communities (Lorenzen 2000,13a). Birmingham, AL is considered a urban metropolitan area. Social Services and Health organization are located through out the city rural areas. These Social Service and Health Organiazations are located throughout…...

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