Assess The View That Crime And Deviance Are The Products Of The Labelling Process 21 Marks

  • Crime and Deviance

    CRIME AND DEVIANCE INTRODUCTION Sociology is a science that involves many norms. When those norms are not respected by at least an individual, then the behaviour of that person is said to be deviant. Most of the time, this type of behaviour is strongly different from a majority of society that is following the norms. The crime, as explained in today’s society, is an action or a behaviour that does not respects the laws set by governments. Criminology, also called criminal justice, is the

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  • Assess the Views That Crime and Deviance Is as a Result of the Labelling Process.

    The labelling theory believes that crime is a social construction and as Becker states ‘deviance is in the eye of the beholder’. Therefore a deviant act is only termed so when a label has been applied to it. Labelling theorists believe that crime is as a result of interactions between people, police and the justice system. Therefore disagree that that crime is as a result of social forces such as opportunity structures. They therefore believe that the labelling process does have a direct effect on

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  • Crime and Deviance

    explanations of Crime and Deviance Labelling theory paved the way in understanding how deviance was something defined by social processes. In this way social agencies such as the police defined what was deviant. Marxists took this view even further by examining the power of certain social groups to define deviance and create the laws which secured social conformity. Marxists see crime and deviance as not coming from moral or biological defects but defects within social order. Crime is an inevitable

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Subcultural Theories in Explaining ‘Subcultural Crime and Deviance’ in Society Today (21 Marks)

    Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the usefulness of subcultural theories in explaining ‘subcultural crime and deviance’ in society today (21 marks) Subcultural theories believe that people who commit a crime share different values to the rest of society. Subculture theories come from two different schools of sociology which are appreciative sociology and strain theory. Appreciative sociology came from the University of Chicago in the early 20th Century; Chicago sociologists were

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  • Assess the Contribution of Realism to Our Understanding of Crime and Deviance (21 Marks)

    Assess the contribution of Realism to our understanding of Crime and Deviance (21 Marks) Realism is a perspective that branches off into two sub-categories, Left Realism and Right Realism. Left Realism was originally developed as a critique of New Criminology and, like Marxists, they support the Conflict Theory (The idea that society is unequal). However, unlike Marxists, they believe in gradual social change rather than overthrow of capitalism to achieve equality. Right realism though, like Functionalists

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  • Assess Strain Theories as an Explanation of Crime and Deviance in Contemporary Society.Docx Uploaded Successfully

    Assess strain theories as an explanation of crime and deviance in contemporary society The relationship between offending and subculture explains how a situation for example society preventing certain groups particularly working class males from succeeding in terms of material achievement and this creates group response whereby the group rejects the values and of that society and develops alternative values ‘subculture’ and this leads to values generated by the subculture being justified and leading

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  • Assess the Usefullness of Labelling Theory as an Approach to Explaining Crime and Deviance

    Labelling theory suggests that deviancy is a social process usually related to power differences but it doesn’t explain the causes of crime. It does however explain why some people or actions are described as deviant, and can help in understanding crime and deviance. The labelling theory is very useful when trying to understand deviance. Becker suggests that there is really no such thing as a deviant act. An act only becomes deviant when others perceive it as such. The application of a label to

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  • Assess the View That Crime and Deviance Are a Product of the Labelling Process

    Assess the view that crime and deviance is a product of the labelling process (21) Some sociologists believe that crime and deviance is a result labelling which is when a label is attached to a person or group of people due to their appearance, sex, ethnicity or other factors. It is also leads individuals to believe that labelling theory can create a self-fulfilling prophecy, which is when the person begins to act according to the label and hence it comes true simply through being made. The

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  • Assess the View That the Process of Globalisation Has Led to Changes in Both the Amount of Crime and the Types of Crime Committed

    including spread of ICT, the global mass media, cheap flight and easy movements of businesses. Many crimes now happen on a global scale due to globalisation such as cyber-crime and drug and people trafficking. Castells (1998) argues because of globalisation there is a globalised criminal economy worth £1 trillion. This is from different crimes such as arms dealing, human trafficking, green crime, sex tourism, smuggling illegal immigrants and trafficking in body parts as well as others. The global

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  • Deviance in Crime

    Ari Denburger AJ-1 Mr. Lacasso 2/16/2014 Deviance related to crime Deviance is a title that insinuates the violation of social norms in society which has been defined through law. Deviance can be described as adjacent to criminal and improper behavior imposed by the people who break the social norms of a society, thus becoming subjective to a label of “deviant”. Deviants often have punishment bestowed upon them by law enforcement officers and their local court systems. The question asked by

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  • Marxist Theories (Crime and Deviance)

    Item A and elsewhere, assess the strength and limitations of Marxist theories in explaining crime and deviance (21 marks) Marxist theories of crime are based on conflict, as opposed to the functionalist and subcultural explanations of crime, which are based on consensus. They claim that society is divided by capitalism and there is a conflict between the upper-classes and the working-classes. They suggest that social inequality, as a result of capitalism, is the cause of crime. As Item A points

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  • Assess the Usefulness of Realism in Developing Our Understanding of Crime and Deviance

    Assess the usefulness of realism in developing our understanding of crime and deviance Sociologists, both left and right realists, have tried to develop accurate theories of crime that propose practical solutions when dealing with the worldly issues of crime and deviance. The way these two approaches pursue this is drastically different from one another, as both wings are from completely opposite ends of the political scale. Nevertheless, like all sociological theories, they have their margins and

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  • Assess the View That Crime and Deviance Are the Products of the Labelling Process (21 Marks)

    Assess the view that crime and deviance are the products of the labelling process (21 marks) The labelling theory is a micro interactionist approach, this is because it focuses on how individuals construct the social world through face-face interactions. It recognises the concept of the ‘procedural self’ where ones identity is continuously constructed and recognised in interaction with significant others, this results in the individual’s behaviour, including that related to crime and deviance

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  • Assess the Apparent Gender Difference in Crime and Deviance

    Assess explanations for apparent gender differences in involvement in crime.  (21 marks) Since the 1970s many feminist have criticised criminology for being male orientated, where by women are invisible in both theoricatical consideration and empirical studies. Patterns of offending by men and by women are notable both for their similarities and for their differences. Both men and women are more heavily involved in minor property and substance abuse offenses than in serious crimes like robbery

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  • Assess the Value of the Right Realist Approach to Crime and Deviance. (21 Marks)

    Assess the value of the right realist approach to crime and deviance. (21 marks) Right realists argue that crime today is a very real and growing problem. Right Realists argue that crime threatens society’s work ethic, social cohesion and destroys communities in society. Unlike other theories, Right realism focuses on the solutions for crime alongside the explanation of what causes crime in society, this approach also criticise labelling and criminology theories for being too sympathetic to the

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Labelling Theory in Explaining Crime and Deviance

    elsewhere assess the usefulness of labelling theory in explaining crime and deviance. (21 marks) Labelling theory is a micro theory that explains how self-identity and behaviour of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe them. As Item A states, it is a micro approach that examines how individuals construct society. Labelling theory is useful in explaining crime and deviance through the way in which Lemert distinguishes between primary and secondary deviance. However

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the View That Crime and Deviance Are the Product of Labeling Processes.

    Using material from item A and elsewhere, assess the view that crime and deviance are the product of labeling processes. Labelling theorists are interested in how and why certain acts come to be defined or labelled as criminal in the first place. They argue that no act is inherently criminal or deviant in itself. In other words, it is not the nature of the act that makes it deviant but the nature of society’s reaction to the act. For a sociologist such as Becker, a deviant is simply someone

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  • Outline and Assess Functionalist Explanations of Crime and Deviance (Just a Plan)

    OUTLINE AND ASSESS FUNCTIONALIST EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE (50) INTRODUCTION * Structural theory * Believe that society is good and order is necessary * Therefore at first glance crime appears to be negative, but functionalists believe crime can be beneficial to social system PARAGRAPH 1 - DURKHEIM * Believed in consensus and need for social order + that crime was inevitable * He believed crime and deviance were product of lack of attachment to prevailing consensus

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  • Assess the Usefulness of Realist Approaches in Understanding Crime and Deviance

    sociologists have both attempted ‘realist’ approaches to crime and deviance, both offer practical solutions in dealing with the issue. However, the way these two approaches go about this is radically different, as right and left realism are from completely opposite ends of the political spectrum. Although like all sociological explanations, they have their limitations and flaws, both approaches have proven useful in understanding crime and deviance for a number of reasons. The origins of left realism

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  • Assess the Functionalist Views of the Roles of the Family (24 Marks)

    Assess the functionalist views of the roles of the family (24 marks) Functionalists believe that society is based on value consensus; a set of shared norms and values. The value consensus helps to socialise member of society to create social order, by allowing the members to work with each other and meet the needs of society. The functionalist definition of a family is a group consisting of two parents and their children living together as one unit; the roles of the family are simply what the

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  • Assess Sociological Explanations of the Role of the Mass Media in Creating Moral Panics About Crime and Deviance

    Assess sociological explanations of the role of the mass media in creating moral panics about crime and deviance: A moral panic is the process of arousing social concern over an issue, this is often an exaggerated over-reaction by society to a perceived problem, which is usually driven or inspired by the media. In this situation the reaction ends up amplifying the problem out of proportion to its real seriousness. This creates anxiety amongst the general population, and this therefore puts pressure

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  • Examine How the Media Causes Crime -21 Marks.

    causes crime -21 Marks. We live today in a media- saturated society. The media are all around us and crime is the central theme of their output, both fiction and non-fiction. Crime and deviance make up a large percentage of news coverage. For example, Richard Ericson et al’s study of Toronto found that 45-71% of quality press and radio news was about various forms of deviance and its control, while Williams and Dickinson found British newspapers allocate up to 30% of their news space to crime. However

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Subcultural Theories in Explaining `Subcultural Crime and Deviance' in Society Today. (21 Marks)

    follow distinct norms and values different to those in mainstream society as stated in item A. Subcultures may contain norms and values that would be considered deviant in society and involve criminal activity. In Stanley Cohen’s view the subcultural crime and deviance today results from the inability of lower classes to achieve mainstream success by legitimate means. Once the person fails to achieve success they may try to do so in other ways. Status frustration is a key element to Cohen's theory

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  • Assess the Contribution of Postmodernism to Sociologists Understanding of Crime and Deviance in Todays Society.

    Asses the contribution of postmodernism to sociologists understanding of crime and deviance in todays society. Some sociologists believe that we now live in a post-modern society that has a distinct set of characteristics in comparison to modern society; Postmodernists reject the views of the modernist theorists as they claim that they are metanarratives (big stories). They believe that sociology needs to develop new theories so we can fully understand postmodern society, as society is constantly

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  • Assess Realist Explanations of Crime and Deviance.

    occurred in the 70’s and 80’s in changing politics. The realist view is that crime is not just a social construction, but is a real problem that needs to be tackled. Realists believe that there has been a significant rise in the crime rate and favours a tough approach against it, as they think that other theories have failed to offer a solution to crime. The left realists Lea and Young attempt to give an explanation to street crime, committed by young people in urban areas. These sociologists took

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  • ‘Assess the Contribution of Subcultural Theories in Explaining ‘Subcultural Crime and Deviance’ in Society Today’ (21 Marks – January 2011 Examination)

    ‘Assess the contribution of subcultural theories in explaining ‘subcultural crime and deviance’ in society today’ (21 marks – January 2011 examination) The theories of subcultural sociologists are based on the idea of subcultures, which are made up of a group of people who share the same norms and values as one another. These norms and values are of contrast to those of mainstream society. The individuals within these groups have rejected these mainstream views due to a variety of problems such

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  • Using Materiel from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Subcultural Theories in Explaining Subcultural Crime and Deviance in Society Today. (21 Marks)

    order to explain why crime and deviance happens, functionalists see society as socialising individuals into shared norms and values that dictate how they will behave showing why those who are part of a subculture reject society and participate in crime and deviance because they enable a person to have a sense of identification. However theses subcultural theories cannot always explain the trend in crime and deviance as there are many contributing factors as to why crime and deviance happens. Merton

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Asses the View That Crime and Deviance Are the Product of Labelling Processes.

    Sociologists use the labelling theory in order to explain why crime and deviance occurs in society. This theory conveys the idea that a act is only criminal or deviant if the act is labelled accordingly, these labels are attached to individuals by those in society who are conformist, therefore they are defining what is deviant and non-deviant. Those who use this theory as an explanation therefore explain crime and deviance in the terms that it occurs as a result of labelling that has been placed

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  • Evaluate the Usefulness of Labelling Theory to Our Understanding of Crime and Deviance (40 Marks)

    Evaluate the usefulness of labelling theory to our understanding of crime and deviance (40 marks) Synopticity – Crime & Deviance and Theory Labelling theorists such as Becker and Lemert argue that because of the diversity of different values in society, there can never be a universally agreed definition of what constitutes ‘normal’ or ‘deviant behaviour’. What is deviant for one person may not be deviant for another. Labelling theorists argue that social reactions means labels are attached

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  • Marxist View of Crime and Deviance

    Assess the usefulness of Marxist theories in explaining crime and deviance Marxists sociologists believe that we live in a capitalist society which is divided into classes. They argue that society is based on conflict over the inequality of wealth and power between the bourgeoisie; the ruling capitalist class who own the means of production and the proletariat; the working class who are exploited by the bourgeoisie in order for them to gain profit. This is known as capitalism. The Marxist view on

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  • Outline and Assess the Marxist Approach to Crime and Deviance

    Outline and assess the Marxist approach to crime and deviance (50) Crime is defined as an act that is punishable by law. It is socially constructed, meaning society decides what is considered to be a crime. Deviance is a violation of society’s norms. Individuals decide what is and isn’t deviant based on their own norms and values, therefore, deviance can also be viewed as a social construct. What is considered to be a crime or act of deviance may differ from different cultures since crime and deviance

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  • Sociology Deviance and Labelling Theory

    labelling theory to our understanding of crime and deviance (40 marks)   Synopticity - Crime & Deviance and Theory     Labelling theorists such as Becker and Lemert argue that because of the diversity of different values in society, there can never be a universally agreed definition of what constitutes ‘normal' or ‘deviant behaviour'. What is deviant for one person may not be deviant for another. Labelling theorists argue that social reactions means labels are attached to certain people

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the View That Crime and Deviance Are the Product of Labelling Theory (21 Marks)

    elsewhere, assess the view that crime and deviance are the product of labelling theory (21 marks) The labelling theory is a micro interactionist approach, this is because it focuses on how individuals construct the social world through face-face interactions. It recognises the concept of the `procedural self' where ones identity is continuously constructed and recognised in interaction with significant others, this results in the individual's behaviour, including that related to crime and deviance

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the View That the Mass Media Are a Major Cause of Crime and Deviance in Today’s Society. (21 Marks)

    Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that the mass media are a major cause of crime and deviance in today’s society. (21 marks) It could be argued that with some issues, the media plays a heavy role in influencing people to commit crime. Interactionist sociologists could argue that the media provide a form of database for imitation/copy cat crimes and from seeing these crimes the public are more likely to do them. In the media people are exposed to various types of crime, mainly violent and sexual

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess Sociological Explanations of the Role of the Mass Media in Creating Moral Panics About Crime and Deviance. [21 Marks] (35 Minutes)

    elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of the role of the mass media in creating moral panics about crime and deviance. [21 marks] (35 minutes) The media is often held accountable for the exaggeration of crime and deviance, in order to create a ‘newsworthy’ story. According to Durkheim, the media plays a vital role to maintain society in what is considering socially acceptable thus reinforcing the norms and values that must remain. Similarly, he states all change is instigated by deviance therefore

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Labelling Theory in Explaining Crime and Deviance. (21 Marks)

    “The growth and influence of religious fundamentalism across the world challenges the claim that contemporary society has become secular”. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of contemporary religious belief and practice? Our current society is turning more secular. However, with the numerous religious beliefs and practices there have been arguments for these claims. Pick and mix cultural society mainly refers to the city like London, which purely believes in

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  • Outline and Assess Feminist Views of Crme and Deviance.

    Outline and assess Feminist views on crime and deviance. (50) Within Feminism itself there are many different approaches to crime and deviance including Liberalism, Radicalism and Post-modernism. Each of them believes that crime, or the lack of crime, is a result of the patriarchal dominance in society. Feminists believe that the patriarchy generates crime against women whilst discouraging deviancy amongst women. The official crime statistics show that men tend to commit more crime than women

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  • How Does the Labelling Theory Affect Crime and Deviance in Society (21)

    How does labelling theory affect crime and deviance in society? (21) In sociology's study of crime and deviance, basically all of the theorists, excluding notably the Marxist theory, suggest that there is a difference between those who offend and those who do not, and search for key factors that lead people to offend. However, there are a group of theorists who reject this idea and instead suggest that most people commit deviant and criminal acts, but only some people are caught and stigmatised

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  • Crime and Deviance

    Crime and Deviance exam questions Crime questions – Qu. 1 & 2 – both worth 21 marks.You should spend 30 minutes on each question and each should have a traditional essay structure (include an introduction and a conclusion, at least two sides of the argument, two or more theories, relevant studies and as much evaluation as you can cram in!). You also need to show ‘conceptual confidence’ – this just means that you should make it clear to the examiner that you know and understand the important

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  • Crime and Deviancy and the Effects of the Labelling Theory ( 40 Marks )

    simply not something that people have or don’t have; crime is not something some people do and others don’t. Crime is a matter of who can pin the label on whom and underlying this socio-political process is the structure of social relations determined by capitalism. Using material from item A and elsewhere asses the usefulness of the Marxist approaches to an understanding of crime and deviance (21 marks) Marxists essentially see crime and deviance as defined by the ruling class and used as a means

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  • Assess the Usefulness of Functionalist Approaches in Explaining Crime. (21)

    whole. They explain crime and deviance by stating that the source of deviance lies in the nature of society rather than the individual. Durkheim states that crime and deviance is inevitable and a certain level is necessary for society to exist. He also claims that it is a positive aspect of society as it shows examples of rights and wrongs within society and by punishing offenders, through ways such as public humiliation and portraying crime as wrong, raises awareness of crime and therefore deters

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  • Crime and Deviance

    CRIME AND DEIVIANCE – Table of Sociologists GENDER | Sociologist | What they said | Heidensohn | - Women’s behaviour is conformist- Control at home – housework and childcare impose severe restrictions on women’s time- Control in public – women fear the threat of male violence against them- Control at work – kept in place by male supervisors and managers- Females are treated more harshly than males when they deviate from gender norms e.g. double standards – courts punish girls for premature

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess Sociological Explanations for the Types and Patterns of Green Crime. [21 Marks]

    Green crime is a form of crime caused by globalization. As item A suggests, there is a central debate running throughout green crime as to whether crimes against the environment should be treated as illegal despite legislation not being in place. As White (2008) suggests, green crime create more damage than much other crime, for example the Bhopal disaster in India, 1984 caused thousands of deaths due to chemical gas poisoning, yet the companies involved have never taken corporate responsibility

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  • Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Labelling Theory in Explaining Crime and Deviance

    ‘Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the usefulness of labelling theory in explaining crime and deviance’ (21 marks) Labelling theory is a micro approach that looks at how individuals construct society based on their interactions with each other (item). In terms of crime and deviance, labelling theory argues that most people commit deviant and criminal acts but only some are caught and stigmatised for it. So therefore, it is not useful to search for differences between ‘deviants’

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  • Assess the View That Interpretivist Methods Are the Most Appropriate Methods for Researching Society. (21 Marks)

    Assess the view that interpretivist methods are the most appropriate methods for researching society. (21 marks) Interpretivist sociologists would argue their ideas of methodology are the most appropriate methods for researching society. They believe behaviour is influenced by situations in society, and use qualitative data gathered by unstructured questionnaires, unstructured interviews and participant observation. They believe in verstehen- the process of putting yourself into the participant’s

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  • Labelling and Deviance

    In the 1960’s, labelling theory provided explanations as to why deviance exists in society. Interactionists argue that labelling and societal reaction are relatively important in terms of individual’s actions, however, traditional positivists oppose this view and argue that labelling theory illustrates the inequality in the social structure as well as unequal power relations. Labelling theorists therefore argue that deviance is socially constructed. Becker’s concept of the labelling theory highlights

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  • Assess Explanations for Apparent Gender Differences in Involvement in Crime (21 Marks)

    Assess explanations for apparent gender differences in involvement in crime (21 marks) There are clear gender differences in the level of crime in society. In 2015 official statistics showed that male prison population was at 95%, with women prison population only 5%. The division in these figures may be due to several factors such as how crimes are actually recorded and the idea that males do commit more crimes that females and the male stream society that we are in. It may be believed that

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  • Outline and Assess Feminist Explanations for Crime and Deviance

    Crime is a behaviour/act that goes against a society’s law, and therefore has legal consequences attached if broken, e.g. prison sentence, penalty charge. Deviance is an act/behaviour that goes against a societies norms and values, however is not against the law and therefore not punishable by law. It is a relative term dependent on different societies and their norms and values; what is considered deviant also changes over times, for example it used to be considered deviant for women to smoke, whereas

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  • Crime and Deviance

    “A” Level Sociology A Resource-Based Learning Approach Deviance and Social Control Unit M4: Functionalism Introduction In these Teachers’ Notes we’re going to review a number of theories of crime and deviance from a Structural Functionalist perspective. In case this sociological perspective is not clear to you, the first part of these Notes is given over to a brief overview of this perspective. If you are familiar with this perspective

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  • Assess the Marxist View of the Role of Education (20 Marks)

    Assess the Marxist view of the role of education (20 marks) Marxists view society as based on conflict. They believe that the role of all institutions in society can be understood in terms of how they relate to the economic system. They therefore see the education system as an institution which reproduces the class system and provides the economy with a suitable workforce. The labour force needs professional and managerial workers, as well as skilled and unskilled manual workers. According

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