Toyota Supply Chain System
from suppliers (including 1st to 3rd tiers).
In order to achieve effective supply chain integration, the use of collaboration and coordination among channel partners that share business information, to simplify core processes, streamline cross company operations and reduce consequent channel-wide costs are suggested (Lee & Whang, 2001), (Callioni & Billington, 2001) and (Hammer, 2001)
Vertical SCC includes collaboration with customers, internally (across functions) and suppliers. Horizontal
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